Evaluation – Negativistic view
What is evaluation? Why are we giving such importance? Is it necessary?
Evaluation at present in the name of Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation(CCE) is given more importance. New programmes and policies in education sector were introduced in the name of CCE. Lot of effort is being put on advocacy of CCE programmes in school education. Is it required? We say it’s a new concept which is absolutely baseless. Previously we had SSLC register. It included all the areas that were related to education both scholastic and co-scholastic. It was taken off because there was no use of all the details or history of the student in future. While giving jobs too no one refer to other areas except marks in subjects. At present in the name of CCE we are reintroducing SSLC pattern in education system. We have to understand its usage before reintroducing it. For example even if a person has bundle of certificates regarding scholastic and co-scholastic like performance in quiz, drama, chess, sports, elocution, essay writing, short story writing, best student awards etc were not even looked once by any recruiting agencies. What is the use of recording all these in evaluation registers which is time waste and paper waste? What new are we doing? The answer is nothing.
Is the purpose of CCE fulfilled?
The main purpose of CCE is
1) To know the current status of the student with regard to his previous exam – ie., with reference to the student himself.
2) To know his position among other students. Rank in the class. That is with reference to the peer group.
3) To know his level when compared to a criteria. Learning competencies. I.e., with reference to certain standards of attainment. Teacher observation based.
But as we are giving grade the student never knows his improvement as he get almost same grade or slightly one grade above or below. He can’t compare himself with others as most of the students fall in same grade. Even the learning competencies cannot be compared since the student gets almost same grade and even grading too is not accurate. For example if a student gets 51% in one exam and 64% in another exam he is given same grade as B+. The teacher too cannot estimate his progress. Hence the system of grading itself is not suited for CCE purpose. Even more disastrous is grading system in co-scholastic areas which doesn’t give anything to the students about their progress.
Is evaluation continuous and comprehensive?
The term seems to sound good but do we follow. We can agree that there is continuity in exams related to scholastic areas in the form of slip test, monthly test, quarterly etc.,(previously too we had 4 unit tests and three term end exams now the name is changed to formatives and summative) but is there continuity in co-scholastic areas; once in a year programmes that too for the purpose of annual day celebration do mean continuity.
The term comprehensive too is vague. Our evaluation truly is based on scholastic areas only. We are not testing all the co-scholastic areas and that too of all the students. Only those students who wish to participate voluntarily in co-scholastic areas were only tested and not all. That includes only less than 5% participation. So the words comprehensive and continuous were only for name sake.
Quality monitoring tools
Now administrators were talking about quality monitoring tools and techniques. I just want to know how many tools are required to monitor the evaluation process as described in CCE. Almost 100 tools in the form of observation, rating scales, interviews, check list, diagnostic tests, questionnaires, opinionnaires, attitude scales, interest inventories, aptitude scales, sociometric tools, self appraisal tools, peer appraisal tools, civic sense tools, anecdotal records, etc on various scholastic and co scholastic areas. Can we apply them? Does a mere teacher understand the tools, or can he collect relevant data. Is the time sufficient for him to apply all these tools and each and every student? Can primary teachers where two teachers were working in schools collect the information from all the students? All these tools should be applied by the teacher as the primary and UP school students can’t read the tools. And most importantly what are we going to do with all this data. A time wasting, money wasting and paper wasting activity. Do you think the teachers are doing research work to get Ph.D’s?
Sub process of evaluation
We know that gathering information, interpretation of information, making judgments and taking decisions were the sub process of evaluation and particularly CCE. Previously we used to follow this strictly for example we used to gather information in the form of tests, correct those and interpret the information, we used to give judgment in the form of results and based on the result we used to take decision whether to promote or not. But now in the view of CCE there is no judgment and decision phase as every student should be promoted either he passes or fails the exam.
Present problem in implementing the CCE model
At present the main problem for implementing CCE Model is that it is not suited for class with strength more than 25 students. Take for example a class having 40 students. If we follow the lesson plan we need atleast 40 periods to complete one chapter of English( as prescribed by the SCERT model lesson plan) we have 8 chapters in each class so we need 40 x 8 a total of 320 periods for a year to complete the syllabus. Now the government want us to implement CCE evaluation process. For evaluation of 4 formatives and 3 summatives we need almost 80 periods for a class of 40 students. That is we need to have 400 periods a year for English subject. But we have 220 working days and out of which we take only 180 periods excluding our cls. So is it possible to complete the syllabus. Also we were asked by the DEO’s and higher authorities to complete the syllabus by December for 10th class. We merely get 120 working periods. How is it possible to do all these?
You may want to know how we need those many hours for evaluation. In formative test we need to allot the students work related to some observation activity. Now the officers want us give some books or newpaper ask them to select a topic and write about that. For these one period is needed. Then the work is to be corrected in front of the student and the students should be asked to present before the class. All the students need to present it as they are allotted marks. It takes at least 3 periods for 40 students. So for 40 students 4 periods are for observation activity. Similarly 4 periods are needed to correct their notes in front of the students and 4 periods for project presentation activity. All together 12 periods are needed to allot 30 marks for formative. Then one period for slip test and one period for correction that is 2 periods. Totally we need 14 periods for formative each formative. So 4 x 14 = 56 periods. For three summatives we have to exclude 7 x 3 = 21 periods. i.e., we totally need 77 periods a year for evaluation purpose for a class of 40 as prescribed by government. But if the strength is more we need almost 100 classes. Most importantly all the students of the class sit ideally in the class for all these days with out any work.
Misconceptions in education and evaluation.
1) Teach : How dare to use the word teach? Do you teach the student? What do you teach? They know everything. You just make them to learn. Provide learning experiences. They can learn on their own. Follow the principles of constructivism. Don’t you know ours is child centered approach? Its not teacher centered. You are just an active student in the class. You are a facilitator. Do you know you are just a friend? Don’t you know that the word teacher just seems to sound devil in the minds of students? Here after change your designation to learning assistants or learners assistants and not teacher. This is the present situation of a teacher in government schools if we follow the principles prescribed by the government.
Think once there is no wrong in using the word teach or teacher. The teacher’s duty is to teach which converts into learning from student point of view. Teaching learning is the communication process in the class. Only learning cannot be activated without teaching. We have to understand that every person whether educated or uneducated learns lot of education but having teacher improves and quickens the learning process. One more thing we need to understand is that we are not following naturalistic philosophy and you can observe among the students that follow Krishna Murthi’s and Aravindo philosophy of naturalist learning are not at par with other school students.
According to present guidelines take for example English subject we have to go to the class and ask the students to open text books and ask them to read. They have to read them selves, refer to the dictionary and find the meanings and understand the lesson. The teacher should be a facilitator. We should ask the students to discuss in groups and understand the lesson. We would ask the students to write the answers for the questions given in comprehension part. What we mean to say is that we should not teach; they learn themselves. Even the self assessment tool given after the lesson suggests that. A clever student can read but what about a dull student. Even if we make groups will the students discuss the subject or they talk something else.
The officials say we enable the students to gain all the four skills of language namely listening, speaking, reading and writing. We say it is comprehensive approach. But now what we ask the students is just to read and write and present(speak) work. Where has listening gone? Now they have taken off the listening test and speaking test too. No marks are allotted to listening and speaking. We went back. Then where is comprehensive evaluation. Two most important language skills are not tested. The present examination paper is same but only difference is more self expression oriented. There is grammar previously. There are reading passages in the past, there is letter writing, there is essay writing, there is story completion, there is punctuation, there are synonyms, antonyms, parts of speech etc and everything what is new at present is the way of questioning changed. That’s it.
If the teacher never teaches how will the student learn? One thing that every person should understand is that listening is the most important of all the skills of language or any subject. With out listening we don’t understand or learn. All the illiterates too learn and understand only because of listening. Even if an illiterate goes to Madhya Pradesh he can learn hindi only through listening. But you say we should not teach. One main thing that everyone should understand is with out listening there is no learning. But listening enhances learning and fastens learning. If a teacher teaches the student listens. Teaching of the teacher is the listening and learning of the student. If my teacher reads and recite the poem I could imitate the same tune and understand it. So people in olden days used to remember the poems and sing with rhythm. But now if student read can he sing a rhyme. Let the teacher lecture the student listens and understands. People listen and understand better then they read and understand. So go back to previous way of learning. Make the teaching alive. This saves the time of the students. It enhances learning. We say students get stressed though memory but memory too is needed for every one. And with present generation and their brain functioning the lessons are not a matter to memorize. The only thing is we are spoiling their mental faculties by delaying the leaning experiences. That is child learning is at its peak from 2 to 6 years. We are neglecting that. The progress of mind reduces there after. This is the main difference between a private and government child. One who completes LKG and UKG are better compared to those who join in first at the age of 5.
Frankly speaking the present CCE model as you say does not improve the quality but reduces the quality. We simply give marks. One funny thing is every student will get pass because of the present system as we give 20 marks in public. Formative exams for first 30 marks if the student does the work we give 30. He may not do on his own. Even if he get 0 in slip test he would pass with B+ grade. During evaluation process all the students should simply pass time with out doing any work. It takes 10 to 15 days for each formative exam where the students sit idle. Even the parents complain that the teachers are not teaching. So don’t introduce this evaluation system as it is not suitable for all.
2) Teaching and Questioning : We know that education itself is to know why, what and how about anything. Education begins with questioning. But it depends on the level and age of the students. For example we can’t ask a 1 year old child a question as what do you call a person who gave birth to you? He can’t understand. But if we say ten times amma or hundred times he learns and then he says the word. That’s nothing but teaching. So we have to understand that teaching should proceed learning and evaluation. One more thing of concern is we want to make the student learn but not to test.
Previously in a class of 45 minutes teaching; learning used to be of 40 minutes and 5 minutes to evaluation. But now it is being shifted 10 minutes teaching and learning and 35 minutes for evaluation. Previously we used to say evaluation is a part of teaching learning process but now we have to say teaching learning is a part of evaluation. What is conducted in classroom now is evaluation and so new text books are prepared on this concept the CCE model test books, CCE model guides, CCE model examinations, CCE model lesson plans for teachers etc. can we write a complete evaluation oriented lesson plan or period plan for all the subjects and that too for primary classes. Are our teachers trained to write and teach evaluation oriented lesson plan? even now in training colleges we mostly follow the Herbartian steps in writing lesson plans and not evaluation or completely questioning based lesson plans.
3) RVM: No doubt that SSA has promoted good means for universalization of education. But it has paved the way for decentralization of schooling and lowering quality. In a two teacher school there is no ability grouping at classes. So the students from 1 to 5 sit in two classes and the teacher can’t really concentrate on single class. They lack discipline and even when they come to high schools they lack discipline. They lack attention and even think that the teacher is teaching to some other class and not for them. The foundation is more important which has to be laid at primary level but it is not provided. Also in a two teacher school each teacher avails cl’s of almost 22 days and spends time for other works and preparation of reports. Only one teacher looks after the classes 1 to 5 for almost 60 days in a year of 220 days which is wastage of students valuable time. At ground level we find clear difference in the students who come from schools having 5 classes separately and single or dual teachers. And if you introduce all these evaluation processes is it possible to take class. The time would not be sufficient to maintain registers of all these records.
4) Misguidance of Administrators: There are lot of these. For example the SSC valuation from long periods was governed by great administrators. They did not find a simple mistake. All the evaluators who attend the valuation process will be guided on principles of evaluation(what actually is scoring key or marking scheme). Even in schools we were asked to prepare principles of evaluation after examination is over by the head master. All teachers prepare the principles which consists of answers for the questions. It’s so foolish that even in web sites of education the title of principles of evaluation is still used for the marking scheme or scoring key. Kindly change it to marking scheme and don’t title it as principles of evaluation.
5) Lack of clarity : Still there is no clear cut understanding about CCE in administrators after a span of 27 years. For example CCE clearly mentions Evaluation as school based and teachers are given the right to evaluate the students. But still now we have exam papers from common examination board. The teachers have to examine their students if needed can take the help of HM. It is generally not for records based but for learners achievement purpose. One more thing to note is that even RTE states that no examination of any type should not be applied to students we are developing more tools to examine the students and cover ourselves that this is not examination its only evaluation. One thing to remind is examination, measurement, evaluation and monitoring are synonyms. Even in that evaluation there is no clarity some times they say grades; some times marks; some times grades and marks; some times direct grading; some times indirect grading some times 3 point scale grading; some times 5 point grading and some times 7 point grading etc. that too mostly the academic areas only. The limits of marks in awarding grades too is controversial.
There are many more areas of concern. Which would be even more bitter to be discussed. My mother and my teachers says that while questioning some one or while framing a question; find possible answers for the question first. Even our honorable governor said questioning is not important give possible solutions for the problems. Based on that the following suggestions are put forward not only for evaluation but quality improvement of education.
1) Teacher education monitoring is a must for improving teachers quality. Regular attendance of B.Ed. trainees is a must. Introduction of biometric attendance increases regularity.
2) Give weightage to B.Ed. theory marks in DSC so that teacher trainees attend classes in B.Ed and D.Ed colleges. In some colleges the attendance percentage of B.Ed students is zero. i.e., students avail the scholarships and manage the attendance and appear for examination. They go for DSC coaching after B.Ed and secure teacher job. As a result regular students who attend the classes do not qualify.
3) There is no need of special programmes that are taken in the name of class readiness programmes after summer. If needed they can be through online or vedio programmes.
4) Programmes for easy transition from preprimary to primary can be taken up.
5) Education component in anganwadies should be promoted for improvement of quality at primary level.
6) TLM kits should be prepared for each class and for each subject in large scale and should be distributed for the teachers instead of allotting money for TLM and other things.
7) Online database should be prepared for each class for all subjects and for each lesson and should be available to the students so that teacher less education can be promoted at high school level or can be utilized by the schools were some subject teachers were not present.
8) Don’t introduce evaluation tools to monitor all the aspects.
9) Let the school provide schooling which means training academic activities and not other activities.
10) Let school be a school and not a hotel or hostel or a hospital.
11) Keep health awareness camps but not health cards which are waste. Health cards does not include any thing worthy except height and weight that too recorded by PET. The parents take care of their children or PHC’s look after that. Even to test all the diseases mentioned in the health card requires 10000 rupees for each candidate. And we just keep nil for all diseases.
12) In place of health cards provide small informative books like dictionaries that are more useful for the students which are of health card cost.
13) Computer education too seems to be a wasted programme as all that what a student learns at high school for years can be learned in 3 days after 10 class. Computers are outdated and most of us use cellphones to browse the internet. Students only need the material from internet but not C, C+, Java, or some thing else.
14) Hindi should be removed as mere leaning of a language which is not useful for communication is waste.
15) One more extra period for English language as students need language skill to write science and social exams too.
16) In place of Hindi we can introduce moral education, sex education, disaster management, first aid related education, crime related education, business education, spiritual education, creativity and puzzles, behavioural Psychology, cooking etc.
17) Five working day concept or second Monday holiday along with second Saturday concept(3 continuous holidays), could be taken up to promote tourism and sports. Working days can be compensated by removing optional and local holidays.
18) Compulsory holidays on December 31st, 1st January and 2nd January so that the children and students of higher level should be made to stay at home and spend the new year day along with family to improve relations and most importantly to reduce the risk of students getting involved in bad habits like consuming alcohol, drugs and sex related parties as most of the students were first exposed to these on December 31st nights. The parents should be asked to control their children on that day.
19) Primary schools should be given 5 teachers and ability orientation should be done. For this schools may be merged as transportation is not a problem now for quality improvement.
20) Primary schools should not be upgraded to UP’s because with new curriculum and textbooks it is really difficult for SGT’s to deal all subjects of 6,7 and 8th classes. If UP’s are introduced all subject teachers are to be allotted particularly for English subject.
21) Textbooks are too good but are teachers competent enough; also students level should be considered.
22) Teachers handbooks for each subject and for each class should be given for guidance of the teachers.
23) Marks should be reintroduced in place of grades to develop competitive spirit.
24) Morning assembly duration should be reduced as many students feel the heat and feel giddy even in the class.(for 8 to 9 items it takes nearly 20 minutes which is really unbearable now a days even for teachers to stand in sun).
25) Pledge should be removed because making the students take oath which would not be fulfilled is a sin from our part and also against the child rights.
26) Supervision or monitoring of teachers should be for the purpose of improvement of teaching ability but not for abusing purpose or punishment.
27) Providing sweeper to the schools to maintain hygiene( even if there is no teacher through out the year its not a problem; but without sweeper for one day its really problematic.)
28) Appointing itinerary psychologist or guidance personal to every mandal.
29) Introduction of two sets of text books one at home and one at school reduces half the school bag weight. One of the two sets may be old or used books and other set can be new.
30) Introducing ink pens in place of ball pens to avoid plastic waste as well as to be economical.
31) Examination question papers need not include the list of skills to be tested as students don’t understand the concept.(headings like listening, creative writing, vocabulary, expression etc.,)
32) Introduction of progress card of one page compared to the booklet given now.
33) In languages R1 – Reading, R2 – Recitation(of poem), R3 – Recital (story with expression), R4 – Hand Writing, R5 – Dictation exams should be conducted to test reading, speaking, writing and listening skills frequently for primary and upper primary levels. This should be done only for term exams and not for monthly exams.
34) Think of introducing voucher system(giving money to study in private schools) in education to reduce the burden on government as the government spends more than rs 5000 for each student every month.
35) The constitution says the state shall provide education for children; here we have to understand that the word state does not only mean government funded but state means every individual particularly speaking parents. So let the parents afford the fee of their children. There is no need to drag the students from private school to join in government schools. We simply say that government schools are better compared to private but is it true? We say children are free and can play games which promotes social relations. But according to time table of government schools we have only one drill period for a week. Is that one period sufficient to promote social relations. Students of private schools feel stress and have problems related to study but students of government school have problems related to money and sexual affairs.
Finally one thing to remind we are collecting the data or implementing the CCE model evaluation in government schools only which constitute only 30-40 percent of school going children. So we have to leave these evaluation concepts and try to promote quality not by evaluating but by teaching.
Sir/Madam these are only my views and I don’t think these are meant to hurt any one. I want you to consider some issues with a kind heart for improving the status of education. If any thing hurts you I beg your pardon as you are elites. I here quote some words here given by Bhramhasri Chaganti Koteswara Rao garu(spiritual Spokesperson) “A true administer is one who listen to his subordinates and welcomes voices from his subordinates but not a person who scares people of his presence like a lion whom no one approaches”.
Y.Ravi kanth; M.I.T.,M.A.,M.Ed.,DECCE(NCERT),NET-EDUCATION,(Ph.D-EDUCATION) email@example.com
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Y . Ravi kanth,
failure of CCE and defects of 10th class grading