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Seed Treatment

Need for seed treatment and procedures to be followed for treating the seeds of different crops are covered in this topic

Advantages of seed treatment

  1. Protects germinating seeds and seedlings against soil and seed borne pathogens/insects.
  2. Seed germination enhancement.
  3. Early and uniform establishment and growth
  4. Enhances nodulation in legume crop.
  5. Better than soil and foliar application.
  6. Uniform crop stand, even in adverse conditions   (less/high moisture)

Procedure for Seed Treatment

Seed treatment is a term that describes both products and processes. Seed treatment can be done in one of the following types.

  1. Seed dressing: This is the most common method of seed treatment. The seed is dressed with either a dry formulation or wet treated with a slurry or liquid formulation. Dressings can be applied at both farm and industries. Low cost earthen pots can be used for mixing pesticides with seed or seed can be spread on a polythene sheet and required quantity of chemical can be sprinkled on seed lot and mixed mechanically by the farmers.
  2. Seed coating: A special binder is used with a formulation to enhance adherence to the seed. Coating requires advanced treatment technology, by the industry.
  3. Seed pelleting: The most sophisticated Seed Treatment Technology, resulting in changing physical shape of a seed to enhance palatability and handling. Pelleting requires specialized application machinery and techniques and is the most expensive application.

Recommendation of seed treatment for crops



Seed Treatment



Root rot, wilt

Carbendazim (0.1%) 2 g/kg seed

Trichoderma spp. 4-6 g/kg seed

For seed dressing metal seed dresser / earthern pots or polythene bags are used.


Root rot disease

Trichoderma 5-10 g/kg seed (before transplanting)


other insects/pests

Chloropyriphos 3g/kg seed.

Bacterial sheath blight

Pseudomonas fluorescens 0.5% W.P. 10 gm/kg.

Root knot nematode

Seed soaking in 0.2% of Monocrotophos for 6 hours


White tip nematode

Seed soaking in 0.2% solution of Monocrotophos



Anthracnose spp.

Damping off

Seed treatment with Trichoderma viride 4g/kg, Carbandazim @ 1g/100 g seed.


Soil borne infection of fungal disease


Trichoderma viride @ 2 gm/kg. seed and Pseudomonas flourescens, @ 10g/kg, Captan 75 WS @ 1.5 to 2.5 g a.i./litre for soil drenching.


Jassid, aphid, thrips

Imidacloprid 70 WS @ 10-15 gm a.i./kg seed

Pigeon pea


Blight and Root rot

Trichoderma spp. @ 4 g/kg. seed

For seed dressing metal seed dresser/earthern pots or polythene bags are used.


Root rot






Seed treatment with

-   Bacillus subtilis

-    Pseudomonas fluorescens

Soil application @ 2.5 – 5 kg in 100 kg FYM


Carbendazim or Captan 2 g/kg seed


White rot

Thiram + Carbendazim 2 g/ kg seed

Carbendazim or Captan 2 g / kg seed


Root knot nematode


Paecilomyces lilacinus and Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10 g/kg as seed dresser.




Soil borne infection  of fungal disease

Early blight

Damping off


T. viride @ 2 g/100gm seed.

Captan 75 WS @ 1.5 to 2.0 g a.i./litre for soil drenching.

Pseudomonas fluorescens and V. clamydosporium @ 10g/kg as seed dresser.

For seed dressing metal seed dresser/earthern pots or polythene bags are used.



Trichoderma viride @ 4 g/kg seed.



Bacterial wilt

Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10g/kg.


Leguminous Vegetables

Soil borne infection

Trichoderma viride @ 2 gm/100g seed.



Carbofuran/Carbosulfan 3% (w/w)


Seed rot

Trichoderma viride @ 6 g/kg  seed.


Jassids, Whitefly

Imidaclorprid 48FS @ 5-9 g a.i. per kg seed

Imidacloprid 70WS @ 7 g a.i. per kg seed





Treat the seed before sowing with any one of the following insecticides.

Chlorpyriphos @ 4 ml/kg seed or Endosulfan @ 7ml / kg seeds

For seed dressing metal seed dresser / earthern pots or polythene bags are used

Bunt/False smut/loose smut/covered smut

Thiram 75% WP

Carboxin 75 % WP

Tebuconazole 2 DS @ 1.5 to 1.87 g a.i. per kg seed.

T. viride 1.15 % WP @ 4 g/kg.

Cruciferous  vegetables

(Cabbage, Cauliflower, Broccoli, Knol-khol, radish)

Soil / Seed  borne  diseases (Damping off)




Root knot nematode

Seed treatment with Trichoderma viridi @ 2 g / 100 g  seeds

Captan 75% WS @ 1.5 to 2.5 g a.i./litre for soil drenching.


Pseudomonas fluorescens and Verlicillium clamydosporium @ 10g/kg seed as seed dresser.





Wilt and damping off

Seed treatment with Trichoderma viridi 1% WP @ 9 g/kg seeds

Combination of Carbendazim with Carbosulfan @ 0.2% Carbendazim with Thiram with Carbosulfan @ 0.2%

Treat the seed with Chlorpyriphos 20 EC @ 15-30 ml a.i./kg seed.



Soil and Tuber borne diseases

Seed treatment with MEMC 3% WS @ 0.25% or boric acid 3% for 20 minutes before storage.



Loose smut

Covered smut

Leaf stripe


Carboxin 75% WP

Thiram 75% WP @ 1.5 to 1.87 gm a.i./kg seed.

Treat the seed with Chlorpyriphos @ 4 ml/kg seed.



Root knot nematode

Pseudomonas fluorescens 1% WP, Paecilomyces lilacirius and Verticillium chlamydosporium 1% WP @ 10g/kg as seed dresser.


Source : Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine and Storage

Related Resources

  1. Seed Treatment awareness poster (441KB)
  2. SeedNet India Portal
  3. Horticultural varieties from Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
bhagwat salunke Jun 24, 2016 07:08 PM

give the different chart of pest and disease..given information is very excellent..

shree May 28, 2015 12:10 PM


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