T17 2019/05/27 17:16:28.775216 GMT+0530
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Papaya: Crop Stage-wise IPM

This topic covers the Information related to Crop Stage-wise IPM for Papaya

Management Activity

Pre-planting*


Common cultural practices:
• Deep ploughing of fields during summer to control nematodes population and weeds.
• Soil solarization
• Timely sowing should be done.
• Field sanitation, rogueing.
• Destroy the alternate host plants
• Apply manures and fertilizers as per soil test recommendations.
• Plant tall border crops like maize, sorghum or millet to reduce white fly and aphids population.
• Crop rotation with graminaceous crops
• Adopt ecological engineering by growing the attractant, repellent, and trap crops around the field bunds.
Nutrients Papaya plant needs heavy doses of manures and fertilizers. Apart from the basal dose of manures fertilizers are also required.
• Nutrient should be applied on the basis of soil test values and recommendation for the particular agro--ecological region.
• Papaya seedlings are planted in pits of 60 x 60 x 60 cm. size.
• The pits are dug in summer about a fortnight before planting.
• The pits are filled with top soil along with 20 Kg. of farmyard manure., 1 Kg. neem cake and 1 Kg. bone meal.
• Application of 200 g. N/pit is optimum for fruit yield but papain yield increases with increase in N up to 300 g/pit
Weeds • Plough the field before planting to destroy existing weeds
Soil and seed borne pathogens, nematodes Cultural control:
• Intercropping of marigold reduces nematode population
• Nursery should be raised in nematode free sites or fumigated or solarized beds
• Application of decomposed poultry manure @ 200 g / sq. m
Biological control:
• Apply neem cake @ 100 Kg/acre at the time of transplanting for reducing nematodes and borer damage.

Sowing/Seedling*

Nutrients • Planting is done in pits already filled with top soil and farm yard manure.
• Apply 20 g each of Azospirillum and Phosphobacterium per plant at planting and again six months after planting.
Weeds • Use weed free seedlings for planting.
• Remove existing weeds manually in and around the pits at the time of planting.
• Mulching with organic materials around the pits.
• To suppress the weeds between rows, intercropping of leguminous crops after non-leguminous ones, shallow rooted crops after deep rooted ones are beneficial. No intercrops are taken after the onset of flowering stage.
• Use straw or plastic mulch to avoid weed growth and to maintain soil moisture for longer period. In between the rows.
Soil borne diseases Cultural control:
• Seedling raised in insect proof conditions.
• Sow 4-5 seeds/bag then retain 3 seedlings.
• 2 month old seedling is ready for transplanting
• Papaya don’t withstand water logging, hence well drained upland fields should be selected for cultivation.
• Under drip, ring method should be followed.
• Wind break: should be grown to protect from strong wind also save tree from cold damage
Mechanical control:
• Remove and destroy virus infected seedlings/plants.
Biological control:
• Apply Neem seed kernel extract (NSKE) 5%/groundnut oil @ 1-2% on to the plants to manage the vector population.
Nematodes and insects Cultural control:
• Use resistant/tolerant varieties.
• Sowing should be completed within recommended periods.
• Intercropping with sunnhemp or marigold or daincha.
Biological control:
• Use mahua [Madhuca longifolia], castor, neem and karanj [Pongamia pinnata] cakes, biogas sludge applied at 1.0 t/acre during pit preparation.
• Apply 2 tons of FYM enriched with Pochonia chlamydosporia and Paecilomyces lilacinus/acre before sowing, along with 100-200 Kg of neem or pongamia cake.
• Apply neem based products (Neemagon, Bioneem, Neemraj etc.) for controlling this pest.

Vegetative stage


Common cultural practices:
• Collect and destroy diseased and insect infected plant parts.
• Provide irrigation at critical stages of the crop • Avoid water stress and water stagnation conditions.
• Enhance parasitic activity by avoiding chemical spray, when 1-2 larval parasitoids are observed
Common mechanical practices:
• Collection and destruction of eggs and early stage larvae
• Handpick the older larvae during early stages
• The infested shoots may be collected and destroyed
• Handpick the gregarious caterpillars and the cocoons which are found on stem and destroy them in kerosene mixed water.
• Use yellow sticky traps for aphids and whitefly @ 4-5 trap/acre.
• Use light trap @ 1/acre and operate between 6 pm and 10 pm
• Install pheromone traps @ 4-5/acre for monitoring adult moths activity (replace the lures with fresh lures after every 2-3 weeks)
• Erecting of bird perches @ 20/acre for encouraging predatory birds such as King crow, common mynah etc.
• Set up bonfire during evening hours at 7-8 pm
Common biological practices:
• Conserve natural enemies through ecological engineering
• Augmentative release of natural enemies.
• Collection and destruction of eggs and early stage larvae
• Handpick the older larvae during early stages
• The infested shoots may be collected and destroyed
• Handpick the gregarious caterpillars and the cocoons which are found on stem and destroy them in kerosene mixed water.
• Use yellow sticky traps for aphids and whitefly @ 4-5 trap/acre.
• Use light trap @ 1/acre and operate between 6 pm and 10 pm
Nutrients • Apply 50 g each of N, P and K per plant at bi-monthly intervals from the third month of planting.
• The application of 25 % N in organic form, 75 % N in inorganic form along with green manure crops is beneficial.
• Apply 20 g each of Azospirillum and Phosphobacterium per plant again at six months after planting.
Weeds • Inter cultivation is recommended during the first year to check weed growth. Weeding should be done on regular basis especially around the plants.
• Earthing up is done before or after the onset of monsoon to avoid water-logging and also to help the plants to stand erect.
• In subsequent seasons to suppress the weeds between rows, intercropping of leguminous crops after non-leguminous ones, shallow rooted crops after deep rooted ones are beneficial. No intercrops are taken after the onset of flowering stage.
• Use straw or plastic Mulch to avoid weed growth and to maintain soil moisture for longer period.
Mealybugs Cultural control:
• Removal of weeds and alternate host plants like hibiscus, bhindi, custard apple, guava etc in and nearby vineyards throughout the year.
Mechanical control:
• Detrash the crop on 150 and 210 DAP.
Biological control:
• Conserve the natural enemies.
Aphids** Cultural control:
• Check transplants for aphids before planting.
• Reflective mulches such as silver colored plastic can deter aphids from feeding on plants.
• Sturdy plants can be sprayed with a strong jet of water to knock aphids from leaves.
Biological control:
• Release 1st instar larvae of green lacewing bug (Chrysoperla zastrowi sillemi carnea) @ 4,000 larvae/acre.
• Spraying with tobacco decoction (1 Kg tobacco boiled in 10 l of water for 30 minutes and making up to 30 l + 100 g soap).
Chemical control:
• Organic control includes insecticidal soaps (1%) and horticultural mineral oils (1%)
Whitefly** Cultural control:
• Water sprays may also be useful in dislodging adults.
• A small, hand-held, battery-operated vacuum cleaner has also been recommended for vacuuming adults off leaves. Vacuum in the early morning or other times when it is cool and whiteflies are sluggish. Kill insects by placing the vacuum bag in a plastic bag and freezing it overnight. Contents may be disposed of the next day. Fumigating with asmall petrol socked cotton ball.
• For biological control follow common practices.
Stem borer** Cultural control:
• Pierce the infested plants with a sharp needle or knife to kill the caterpillar in the stem.
• For others see common practices.
Papaya hoppers • Removal of weeds and alternate host plants such as Hibiscus, bhindi, custard apple, guava etc.
• For other practices follow common practices.
Mite • See common cultural practices
• Spray NSKE(5%)
Foot Rot Cultural control:
• The crop should be irrigated by adopting the ring method of irrigation so that the water does not come in direct contact with the stem.
• Avoid water logging..
Anthracnose Cultural control:
• Diseased leaves, twigs, gall midge infected leaves and fruits, should be collected and burnt.
• Covering the fruits on trees, 15 days prior to harvest with news or brown paper bags.
Powdery mildews** Mechanical control:
• Prune diseased leaves to reduce primary inoculum load.
• Keep proper spacing during sowing.
Chemical control:
• Thiophanate methyl 70% WP @ 286 g in 300-400 l of water/acre (Thiophanate methyl 70% WP @ 0.1% along with sticker @ 0.05%)
Papaya mosaic virus Cultural control:
• Good field sanitation such as removal and destruction of affected plant reduce the spread of the disease.
• Losses can be minimized controlling the population of aphid.
Papaya leaf curl virus**, Cultural control:
• Uproot the virus affected plants
• Avoid growing tomato, tobacco near papaya.
• Control whitefly vector.
• Removal and destruction of the affected plants is the only control measure to reduce the spread of the disease.
• The field should be kept weed free. Tobacco, tomato. sunnhemp, cape gooseberry, chilli, petunia, Datura stramonium, Zinnia elegans etc. should not be grown nearby papaya field.
Papaya ring spot virus Cultural control:
• Use of yellow sticky strap to control of aphid vector.
• Use of resistant varieties.
• Early detection of infected plants and prompt removal can check the spread of the disease.
• Rogue out infected plants of papaya as early as possible to avoid further infection within the field.
• Avoid taking mixed crop of tobacco, chilli, Zinnea, tomato and gooseberry in papaya field or nearby.

Flowering/Maturity stage

Nutrients • Apply recommended micronutrients, if symptoms are observed.
• Micro-nutrients viz., ZnSO4 (0.5%) and H2BO3 (0.1%) are sprayed in order to increase growth and yield characters.
Weeds • Remove weeds around the plants.
• Continue the u straw or plastic mulch to avoid weed growth and to maintain soil moisture for longer period
Fruit fly** Cultural control:
• Prior to harvest, collect and dispose off infested and fallen fruits to prevent further, multiplication and carry-over of population.
• Ploughing of orchard during November-December to expose pupae to sun’s heat which kills them.
• If infestation is heavy, bait splash on the trunk only, once or twice at weekly interval is recommended. To prepare bait splash, mix 100 g of jaggery in one litre of water and add 1 ml of deltamethrin by using an old broom.
• Managing fruit flies also reduces anthracnose disease and prevents late fruit fall.
Physical control:
• Hot water treatment of fruit at 48 ± 1 ºC for 45 min.
• Male annihilation technique: Set up fly trap using methyl eugenol. Prepare methyl eugenol 1 ml/L of water + 1 ml of malathion solution. Take 10 ml of this mixture per trap and keep them at 25 different places in one ha between 6 and 8 am. Collect and destroy the adult flies
Biological control:
• See common practices.
Scale insects** Cultural control:
• Prune heavily infested plant parts to open the tree canopy and destroy’ them immediately and preferably during summer.
• These should be placed in a pit constructed on one corner of the orchard. Allow branches and twigs to dry until the parasites escape.
• Burn the remaining debris.
• Removal of attendant ants may permit natural enemies to control the insect.
Grey weevil** Cultural control:
• Collection and destruction of infested and fallen fruits at weekly interval till harvest fruit.
• Destroy all left over seeds in the orchard and also in the processing industries.
Whitefly**, Mealybug, stem borer**, aphid**, Mite • Same as in vegetative stage.
Diseases • Same as in vegetative stage.
Birds Mechanical control:
• Install bird scarers or metallic ribbons to ward off the birds
Post-harvest
Anthracnose, Stem end rot, Aspergillus rot, Rhizopus rot, Fruit rot, Phomopsis Cultural control:
• Avoid harvesting of immature fruits
• Cool fruits immediately after harvest and store in well ventilated containers.
• The disease can be checked by sorting the fruit at 100 ºC or below but the rot appears after 2-3 days when such fruits are brought back to 20 ºC or above.
Physical control:
• Hot water treatment at 49 ºC for 20 min.
Botanical control:
• Postharvest dip treatment of fruits with botanical fungicides could also control the diseases during storage.
*Application of Trichoderma harzianum/ viride and Pseudomonas fluorescens for treatment of seed/seedling/planting materials in the nurseries and field application (if commercial products are used, check for label claim. However, biopesticides produced by farmers for own consumption in their fields, registration is not required).
$Pesticides dosage use is based on high volume sprayer.
** Regional pests.

Source: NIPHM, NCIPM and Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine & Storage

3.00847457627
D V Delvadia Nov 10, 2018 01:12 PM

Leaf curling is serious problem of all the varieties. Is there any perfect Solution?

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