T17 2019/12/16 02:24:34.631146 GMT+0530
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Pineapple Crop Stage-Wise IPM

This topic covers the Information related to Crop Stage-wise IPM for Pineapple

Management Activity

Pre-planting*


Common cultural practices:
• Destroy the alternate host plants
• Sow the ecological engineering plants
• Sow sorghum/maize/pearl millet in 4 rows all around the main crop as a guard/barrier crop
• Plough the field before planting to destroy existing weeds in the field.
• Plough deep after harvest to bury the pupae.
Nutrient • The field should be prepared very thoroughly by digging and ploughing up to a depth of 40-50 cm to obtain fine tilth.
• Nutrient should be supplied on the basis of soil test report and recommendation.
• Apply 8-10 tonnes of FYM or compost and 50 Kg phosphorus/acre at the time of last ploughing.
• After leveling, the land is laid out into trenches alternating with mounds for planting the suckers. For double row system of planting, two shallow furrows about 10-15 cm depth are to be opened.
Weed • Remove existing weeds/rhizomes from the field at the time of planting.

Planting*


Common cultural practices:
• Collect and destroy plant parts infested with insect pest and diseases
• Use weed free, healthy suckers for planting.
• Remove and destroy crop residues.
• Avoid planting during wet weather condition
• Take up planting in shade free area
Nutrient • Planting is done double rows system with a plant to plant spacing of 45 cm and row to spacing of 60 cm. The double rows are spaced at 1.5 to 2.0m.
• If FYM is not applied at the time of field preparation, apply FYM or compost @ 2 Kg per sucker at the time of planting.
• Add mycorrhiza inoculants @ 5 g per plant pits/ trenches at the time of planting.
Weed • Remove weeds form the pit/trenches, if any before planting.
Rodent Mechanical control:
• Use traps to reduce rodent population by using locally available attractive baits
Nematode Cultural control:
• Maintain weed free and host free fallow period of at least for 6 month for significant decline in nematode population
• Thorough land preparation will reduce nematode population (it will allow the soil to dry out and accelerates the break down of plant material harbouring nematodes)
Pest • Follow common cultural practices
* Apply Trichoderma viride/harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens as seed/seedling/planting material, nursery treatment and soil application (if commercial products are used, check for label claim. However, biopesticides produced by farmers for own consumption in their fields, registration is not required).

Vegetative stage


Common cultural practices:
• Collect and destroy crop debris
• Collect and destroy disease infected and insect damaged plant parts
• Provide irrigation at critical stages of the crop
• Enhance parasitic activity by avoiding chemical spray, when 1-2 larval parasitoids are observed
• Remove weed plants
Common mechanical practices:
• Handpick the older larvae during early stages
• Collect and destroy plant parts infested with insect pest and diseases
• Handpick the gregarious caterpillars and the cocoons which are found on stem and destroy them in kerosene mixed water.
• Use yellow sticky traps @ 4-5 trap/acre
• Use light trap @ 1/acre and operate between 6 pm and 10 pm
• Install pheromone traps @ 4-5/acre for monitoring adult moths activity (replace the lures with fresh lures after every 2-3 weeks)
• Erecting of bird perches @ 20/acre for encouraging predatory birds such as King crow, common mynah etc.
• Set up bonfire during evening hours at 7-8 pm
Common biological practices:
• Conserve natural enemies through ecological engineering
• Augmentative release of natural enemies
Nutrient • After plants have been established, apply 16 g nitrogen, 2 g phosphorus and 3 g potash/plant, two to three times.
• Apart from application of 8-10 tonnes of FYM, apply 140 kg nitrogen and 16 kg potash/ acre in three split doses at 2, 5 and 8 months after planting.
Weed • After planting, whenever weeds appear interculture should be done without digging of the soil deep.
• Weeding is done at least three to four times in a year.
• Mulching with dry grasses, straw, sawdust, coirdust, rice husk, plastic mulch, etc. will also help to suppress weed growth, conserve moisture and maintain the humus status of soil.
• Grow inter crop/ cover crop in between the rows, to suppress the weed growth in spaces between the rows.
Mealybug Cultural control:
• Avoid using 5-6 years old suckers for planting
• Mealybug spread can be minimized by destroying ant colonies.
• The mealybug infested fields must be prepared by removing all the plant residues and incinerating them.
• Remove weeds present in the field as they support a hike in mealybug population by giving them alternate food resources.
• Remove alternate hosts such as Hibiscus, custard apple, guava in and around crop field.
• Use sterilized equipment when taking up planting and intercultural operations in an uninfested field.
Biological control:
• Application of Beauveria bassiana/Verticillium lecanii @ 5 ml/g (2x 108 cfu/ml or g)/ l of water is effective during high humid months
• Release eggs or first instar larvae of Chrysoperla spp. @ 2-3 grubs/plant.
• Follow biological practices
Scale • Follow common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
Thrips Cultural control:
• Mulching reduces thrips infestation considerably
• Intercrop with plants that have a natural repellence to thrips such as citronella, garlic and pyrethrum.
• Establish windbreaks as they reduce thrips population
Biological control:
• A spray made of garlic and pepper will control thrips.
• Two bulbs of garlic and some hot chilli peppers should be blended in some water. After blending the solid parts should be filtered. Add water up to 5 litres and this solution can be applied.
• Mix 2 kg of fresh plant material of Andrographis paniculata with 250 ml of water and grind it well. Add 21 litres of cow urine and 10 g of crushed dried chilli fruits. Add 10 litres of water and leave the solution for some time. Filter the solution and it is ready for spraying.
• Wash fresh roots of Derris eliptica and cut them into short pieces of 5 cm length. Add small amount of water and pound the roots until they are finely shredded. Filter the solution. Dilute with soap and water at a ratio of 1 part soap: 4 parts root solution: 225 parts water. Apply immediately.
• Follow common biological practices
Phytophthora heart (top) rot Cultural control:
• Avoid excessively deep planting
• Prevent soil entering the heart during planting
• Maintain proper drainage for minimizing the risk of Phytophthora infection.
• Planting on raised beds of at least 20 cm height
• Constructing drains to intercept run-off before it reaches plantation
• Constructing drains within field so that water can be removed quickly without causing erosion
• Installing underground drains.
• Liming materials which increase pH should be used cautiously as P. cinnamomi become active at pH above 4 in the soil
• In high nutrient soils, P. nicotianae, becomes active so apply fertilizers optimally.
Phytophthora root rot Cultural control:
• Same as in Phytopthora heart rot.
Base (butt) rot Cultural control:
• Do not leave a portion of fruit attached to the crown when picking
• Improve soil drainage

Reproductive (fruit) stage


Common cultural practices:
• Remove weeds around the plants.
• Collect and destroy the plant debris and diseased plants.
• Maintain proper drainage
Common biological practices:
• Conserve natural enemies through ecological engineering
• Augmentative release of natural enemies
Nutrients • Apply recommended micronutrients, if deficiency symptoms are observed.
Weeds • Use straw or plastic/ straw mulch to avoid weed growth and to maintain soil moisture for longer period.
Pineapple fruit borer • Follow common biological practices
Pineapple fruit fly Cultural control:
• Plucking off of infested fruits and fermented fruits and destroying them or expose them to sun to kill developing larvae.
• Bagging or netting of fruits.
White grubs/root grubs Cultural control:
• The cultural control of late-spring and early-fall ploughing or disking provide control.
• Crop rotation is the most effective method.
Biological control
• Follow common biological practices
Pineapple weevil Cultural control:
• After two plant cycles replant with new suckers
• Use fresh disease free suckers for planting
• Collect and burn the crop waste in and around the field
• Follow crop rotation with non-host crops
• Restrict the movement of infected plant parts to other areas
Biological control
• Follow common biological practices
Pineapple red mite Cultural control:
• The best management action is to plant only mite-free seed-plant material.
• Population densities of mites can be reduced by lower or minimal fertilizer applications.
Termites Cultural control:
• Select low termite risk areas for planting
• Use termite resistant varieties suitable for that region
• Reduce mechanical damage to the plants
• Removal of termite nests
• Increasing biodiversity by interplanting reduces termite damage
• Clear the area of the material that could attract termites before planting
• Completely remove and burn the tree stumps
Pest management options for pineapple pests Cow urine: Dilute one litre of cow urine in ten litres of water and wet the whole plant at the rate of 80-120 l/acre at regular intervals.
Cow dung: 12.5 kg of fresh cow dung and 12.5 litres of cow urine are collected in an earthen pot and mixed thoroughly with 12.5 litres of water. The pot is covered and the mixture is allowed to ferment for a week. Occasionally it is stirred with a stick. After a week of fermentation, the mixture is filtered and 100 g of lime is added. The concentration is diluted with water in a 1: 10 ratio and sprayed on the crop at 80-100 l/acre.
Neem oil spray: Neem oil spray: 2% neem oil is mixed with any detergent powder at 40– 50 g/100 l and used as a spray solution.
Herbal mixture spray: About 500 g of tobacco leaves, 1 kg of neem kernel, 500 g lime powder, 500 g datura leaves and 500 g pods and seeds of oleander (Nerium oleander) are powdered and mixed together, then soaked in 15 litres of water for 15 days. On alternate days, the mixture needs to be stirred with a stick. After 15 days, one litre of filtrate is mixed in 15 litres of water and sprayed on the crop. It is enough for 2.5 ha and is a multi-pest repellent (Joy, Anjana and Sowmya 2013).
Fruitlet core rot (green eye), fusariosis, green fruit rot, interfruitlet corking, leathery pocket • Follow common cultural practices
Water blister Cultural control:
• Collect and destroy the plant debris and diseased plants.
• Handle fruit carefully to avoid bruising and scuffing (rapid fungal invasion occurs even minute, weeping fractures)
• Reject sun burnt and damaged fruit because these have minor skin cracks that are readily infected
• Remove pineapple refuse and rejected fruit from in and around packing shed
• Maintain proper drainage
Fruit rot by yeast and candida species Cultural control:
• Collect and destroy the plant debris and diseased plants.
• Protect the young developing fruit with paper bags in frost prone areas
• Discard the fruit showing even minor interfruitlet cracking
• Any fruit showing fractures between fruitlets should be picked at the earliest stages of fruit maturity to minimize losses
Mealybug wilt disease Cultural control:
• Use planting materials from wilt free areas or from fields with a low level of wilt disease
• If <3% plants show wilt symptoms then remove the infected plants by hand and destroy them
• If >10% plants show wilt symptoms do not use the field as a source of planting material
• Eradicate badly affected areas immediately after harvest
• Keep main fields and field boundaries free of weeds and trash which may act reservoirs for ants and mealybugs
Yellow spot Cultural control:
• Avoid destroying old weedy patches near young crown planting or fields with developing fruit (to prevent spread of thrips to fruits)

Source: NIPHM and Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine & Storage

2.98870056497
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