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Biogas information

Biogas information

What is Biogas..?

  • Ø In the absence of oxygen, the gas that is produced from bacteria generated from decomposition process of organic substances (dung, excreta, carrion, etc.) is called Biogas, which is mainly composed of methane gas (60%)

Composition

ü Methane (CH4) -40-75%

ü Water (H2O) -0-10%

ü Carbon dioxide (CO2) -25-55%

ü Hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-1-3%

ü Ammonia (NH3)- 0-1%

ü Nitrogen (N2)- 0-5%

ü Oxygen (O2) -0-1%

ü Hydrogen (H2)- 0-1%

Types of biogas plants

  1. 1. The fixed dome type of biogas pant:
  • A fixed-dome plant consists of a digester with a fixed, nonmovable gas holder, which sits on top of the digester. When gas production starts, the slurry is displaced into the compensation tank.

Benefits:

ü The costs of a fixed-dome biogas plant are relatively low. It is simple as no moving parts exist.

ü There are also no rusting steel parts and hence a long life of the plant (20 years or more) can be expected.

ü The plant is constructed underground, protecting it from physical damage and saving space.

 

  1. 2. The floating gas holder type biogas plant
  • A floating-drum plant consists of a cylindrical or domeshaped digester and a moving, floating gas-holder, or drum. The gas-holder floats either directly in the fermenting slurry or in a separate water jacket.

Benefits:

ü Floating-drum plants are easy to understand and operate.

ü They provide gas at a constant pressure, and the stored gas-volume is immediately recognizable by the position of the drum.

Energy calculation of biogas plant

ü Formula to calculate total gas production

ü For cattle max gas production /kg = 0.05 m3

ü Total gas =Total dung in kg x 0.05

ü Calculation for 4 animals each producing 8 kg dung if we are successful to collect that all

ü Total will be 8x4=32 kg

ü Total gas=0.05x32 =1.6 m3

ü If > 1m3 =19 Mega joules

ü So 1.6x19=30MJ

ü To convert it to KWh >> 30/3.6 =8.3 KWh

Conversion to electrical energy

ü When we convert it to electrical energy 65% of energy lost as Heat & other mechanical losses as utilized by electrical generator.

ü So 8.3*35/100 = 2.91 kWh is available as electrical energy from 32 kg of Cow dung

Consumption

ü We can run 60 watts of 2 bulbs + 1 fan of 80 watts

ü >>for 12 hours easily…on 2.91 kWh (el) energy

Limitations of biogas plant for a farmer

ü The construction costs of biogas plants vary between different countries; they are often high relative to the income of the farmers and other potential users.

ü Poor farmers are still lacking behind for adopting this technology because:

ü Initial cost of installation of the plant is high.

ü Number of cattle owned by an average family of farmers is inadequate to feed a biogas plant.

Biogas has many advantages, like…

  • Biogas is an economical and pollution-free fuel
  • Biogas is used for cooking as well as electricity
  • Electricity can also be generated by using generator from biogas
  • Economical, sustainable and pollution-free energy is generated from biogas
  • It is an alternative to conventional fuel like kerosene, wood, etc.
  • It provides an alternative to LPG cylinder
  • As a smokeless domestic fuel it reduces the incidence of eye and lung diseases.
  • Produces good quality enriched manure to improve soil fertility

Global Environmental Benefits

  • Reduces global warming
    • Help reduce deforestation as the use of fire-wood decreases and consequently controls soil erosion and saves environment
    • Reduction in Carbon Dioxide (Co2) emission due to decreasing demand of mineral based fuel
    • Prevents uncontrolled emission of Methane gas
    • Carbon credit benefits to the state and the nation

ü There are approximately 4 million installed household biogas plants in India with almost 4,000 additional units supplying household cluster or village; cattle manure is the primary feedback for these household plants.

ü Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) estimates that available cattle manure could support approximately 12 million household biogas plants.

ü Large scale biogas facilities use industrial wastewater to generate, and the 48 such plants in India have an aggregate installed capacity of 70 MW.

ü MNRE estimates the total capacity potential for industrial biogas to be 1.3 GW.

Production of bio: gas from different sources:-

ü The amount of biogas produced from different sources is different even same individual offered different feed stuffs then production of biogas will also be change. Therefore, amount of biogas produced by utilizing different feed stokes (on dry matter basis) is depicted in table. It shows that poultry manure (65%) and night soil (65%) contained highest amount of methane followed by dung (60%), maize straw (46%), sugar cane trace (45%) and dry leaf (44%). Hence, we can suggest that type of feed stock affects the methane contents.

Sr. No

Feed stock

Litre/kg of dry matter

% methane  content

1

Dung

350*

60

2

Night-soil

400

65

3

Poultry manure

440

65

4

Dry leaf

450

44

5

Sugar cane trash

750

45

6

Maize straw

800

46

 

ü Another important aspect of biogas production is the amount of dung production by different species and system of rearing. If these animals are reared under grazing system, than amount of dung may be taken only 50% of their production.

ü Therefore, amount of dung or night soil produced by different species of domestic animals and human is depicted in table. Based on these figures we can easily work out the amount of dung available in the state and their potency of methane production.

Utilization of electricity:-

ü In a direct combustion system, biomass is burned in a combustor or furnace to generate hot gas, which is fed into a boiler to generate steam, which is expanded through a steam turbine or steam engine to produce mechanical or electrical energy.

Status of bio-gas plants in Gujarat and India:-

ü The best source of energy under rural area is bio-energy, where household owners can utilize the bio waste viz. kitchen waste ,city waste ,fruit/ vegetable waste, waste collected from APMC, crop waste, forest waste,etc can be utilized effectively to generation of electricity.

ü The installation of biogas plant and compact biogas bottling plant at bakrol village, district Vadodara raised the hope that this technology will be the best source of clean energy under rural area.

Biogas plant in India:

ü According to the annual report: 2007-2008 of MNRE about 52,159 biogas plants of approved models were installed across the country with the finance support of MNRE.

v State-wise installed capacity of Biomass power in India (2012-2016)(Grid Connected) (In MW)

States/ UTs

2016

2015

2014

2013

2012

Andhra Pradesh

380.75

389.75

380.75

380.75

363.25

Arunachal Pradesh

-

-

-

-

-

Assam

-

-

-

-

-

Bihar

43.42

43.42

43.42

43.3

15.5

Chhattisgarh

279.9

264.9

264.9

249.9

249.9

Goa

-

-

-

-

-

Gujarat

56.3

55.9

43.9

30.5

20.5

Haryana

45.3

52.3

45.3

45.3

35.8

Himachal Pradesh

-

-

-

-

-

Jammu & Kashmir

-

-

-

-

-

Jharkhand

-

-

-

-

-

Karnataka

872.18

664.28

603.28

491.38

441.18

Kerala

0

0

0

0

Madhya Pradesh

35

36

26

16

8.5

Maharashtra

1220.78

1033.4

940.4

756.9

603.7

Manipur

-

-

-

-

-

Meghalaya

-

-

-

-

-

Mizoram

-

-

-

-

-

Nagaland

-

-

-

-

-

Odisha

20

20

20

20

20

Punjab

155.5

140.5

140.5

124.5

90.5

Rajasthan

108.3

111.3

101.3

91.3

83.3

Sikkim

-

-

-

-

-

Tamil Nadu

641.9

662.3

571.3

538.7

532.7

Telangana

-

-

-

-

-

Tripura

-

-

-

-

-

Uttar Pradesh

870

888.5

776.5

776.5

644.5

Uttarakhand

76

30

30

10

10

West Bengal

26

26

26

26

16

Andaman & Nicobar

-

-

-

-

-

Chandigarh

-

-

-

-

-

Dadar & Nagar  Haveli

-

-

-

-

-

Daman & Diu

-

-

-

-

-

Delhi

-

-

-

-

-

Lakshadweep

-

-

-

-

-

Puducherry

-

-

-

-

-

Total

4831.33

4418.55

4013.55

3601.03

3135.33

Source: Energy Statistics (2017, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013), Central statistics Office, Ministry of Statistics and programme Implementation, Government of India

 

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