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Feeding management

Nutritional requirements of layer and broiler birds are explained here

Cereal grains

1. Maize or corn

  • Maize is the principal energy source used in poultry diets in most of the countries because of its high-energy value, palatability, presence of pigments and essential fatty acids.
  • It contains highest amount of energy (ME 3350 kcal/kg) among cereal grains.
  • It has 8-13% of crude protein.
  • It has high TDN of 85-90%.
  • Maize has low fibre content and is highly palatable.
  • Extremely low in calcium and deficient in vitamin B12 but fair in phosphorus content.
  • Yellow maize provides carotene and xanthophylls pigments for colouration of egg yolk, poultry fat and skin when it is used at 30% and above in the diet.
  • Maize is an excellent source of linoleic acid which contributes for egg size, and maize protein is mainly deficient in tryptophan and lysine.
  • Damaged, immature and improperly stored maize having higher moisture content is prone to aspergillus flavus infestation and produces aflatoxin.
  • Supplementation of toxin binders in diet containing damaged maize grain is essential to minimize the risk of mycotoxins problem.
  • Organic acids should be added to the maize while storing, if the moisture content in the grain is higher than 16%.
  • When the maize is used at >30% in pellet diet, supplementation of pellet binders, molasses, rice bran or oil is required for better quality of pellet.
  • Maize can be included upto 70% in poultry ration.

2. Sorghum / Jowar

  • Sorghum contains slightly lower energy but more protein than maize (ME 3200 kcal/kg; Protein 10%).
  • Sorghum protein is deficit in lysine, methionine and arginine.
  • Light coloured sorghum varieties can be used as the principal energy source.
  • Darker varieties, that are bird resistant, can contain tannins in the seed coat and should be used less.
  • Higher levels of tannin in sorghum may reduce the palatability and thereby feed intake. While tannin free sorghum can be used as a sole source of energy in layer diet without affecting egg production, egg weight and energy efficiencies.
  • It can be included upto 30% in chicks ration and upto 60% in the grower and layer rations.

3. Wheat

  • Wheat is rich in protein and calcium and but low in fat and energy compared to maize.
  • Wheat is a good source next to maize and sorghum (ME 3100 kcal/kg).
  • Its protein content is highly variable (11-14%).
  • Wheat protein is deficient in methionine and threonine.
  • Wheat contains indigestible non-starch polysaccharides (arabinoxylans) that reduces the performance of poultry.
  • The enzyme, xylanase, may be used when wheat is incorporated in feed at high level.
  • It can be included upto 20% in chick ration and upto 30% in grower and layer rations.

4. Rice/ Rice broken

  • The ME content of broken rice ranges from 2400- 3250 kcal/kg.
  • Rice is low in protein (7-8%).
  • Rice which is unsuitable for human consumption can be used for poultry at low level.
  • Rice broken is a byproduct of milling. Its quality is much variable and good quality rice broken can be used in poultry feeds.
  • Replacement of maize with rice broken may increase fat deposition in abdominal area.
  • It can be included upto 10% in chick ration and upto 20% in grower and layer rations.

5. Bajra / pearl millet

  • They have 8-12% of crude protein and rich tannin content.
  • It can be included upto 30% in chick ration and upto 60% in grower and layer ration.

6. Ragi / finger millet

  • Ragi contains slightly less protein, fat and more crude fibre.
  • The amount of Ca and P are higher in ragi as compared to Maize.
  • High crude fibre and tannin content and possibly lower protein quality are the limiting factors in ragi for its utilization in poultry diets.
  • It can be included upto 30% in chick ration and upto 60% in grower and layer rations.

Vegetable proteins

1. Soya bean meal

  • Soya bean meal contains 47-49% protein and is an excellent source of lysine, tryptophan and threonine but it is deficient in methionine.
  • The common adulterant includes castor husk and Mahua oil cake.
  • Like other oil seeds, raw soybeans have number of toxic and inhibitory substances.
  • These toxic, inhibitory substances and other factors in soya bean like saponins can be inactivated by proper heat treatment during processing.
  • It can be included up to 35% in chick ration and upto 25% in grower and layer ration.

2. Groundnut oil cake / pea nut meal

  • Groundnut oilcake has about 40-47% protein which is very rich in arginine and deficient in cystein, tryptophan, methionine and lysine, but good source of Vitamin B12 and calcium.
  • Groundnut oil meal refers to solvent extracted residue and two grades (Grade I & grade II) are available in the market.
  • Groundnut oilcake refers to expeller pressed and two varieties (Grade I & grade II) are available in the market.
  • The common adulterant includes castor husk and Mahua oil cake.
  • Addition of toxin binders and liver tonics is essential in diets containing higher levels of groundnut oil cake.
  • Proper processing of the nuts is essential to deactivate the protease inhibitors present in the nuts.
  • Groundnut cake can be used upto 35% in chick rations and upto 25% in the grower and layer rations.

Aflatoxin affection

  • In rainy season it is specifically labile to contain a toxic factor – Aflatoxins, a secondary metabolite of Aspergillus flavus.
  • Mould spoilage and Aflatoxin production can occur at any stage from growing crop to the formulated feed or stored raw material.
  • Aflatoxins are the most potent toxic, mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic metabolities produced by the species of Aspergillus flavus and A.parasiticus on food and feed materials.
  • Presence of oxygen, conductive temperature (10 – 40ºC) and high humidity favors the mould growth.
  • High moisture in the crop, which harvested around wet period and also inadequately dried products, favors the fungal growth and toxin production.
  • There are four Aflatoxins, B1, G1, B2 and G2 out of which B1 is most toxic.

3. Sunflower oil cake

  • The protein quality of sunflower cake is better than groundnut cake may be due to its higher available lysine and methionine content.
  • Sunflower oilcake contains 40% of protein.
  • It has very short self-life.
  • The expeller variety of Sunflower seed meal or cake has high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids.
  • It can be included upto 10% in chick ration and upto 20% in grower and layer rations.

4. Coconut meal

  • It contains 20-26% crude protein with low lysine and histidine content and 2.5-6.5% oil content.
  • The higher oil meals tend to get rancid and may cause diarrhoea; hence low oil content meal should be preferred.
  • It should be restricted to poultry as it contains low protein and high fibre.

5. Linseed meal

  • Linseed is rich protein source with low methionine and lysine content and also rich in phosphorus part of which is present as phytate but has only moderate calcium content.
  • It is a high source of vitamins like riboflavin, nicotinamide, pantothenic acid and choline.
  • It also has protective action against selenium poisoning.
  • Linseed oil meal refers to solvent extracted residue and two grades (Grade I; grade II) are available in the market.
  • Among the oilseed residues linseed is unique because it readily dispersible in water, forming a viscous slime due the presence of 3-10% of mucilage.
  • Cyanogenetic glycoside, linamarin and an associated enzyme, linase in immature linseed hydrolyses it with the evolution of hydrocyanic acid.
  • HCN is a potent respiratory inhibitor and hence, depending on the species the minimum lethal dose taken orally has been estimated as 0.5-3.5 mg/kg of body weight.
  • Proper water washing, drying and storage can reduce glycosides in the feedstuffs.
  • Linseed oilcake refers to expeller pressed and two varities (Grade I; grade II) are available in the market.
  • It can be included upto 3% in chick ration and upto 5% in grower and layer ration.

6. Mustard cake/ Rape seed meal

  • Mustard cake is a fairly good source of crude protein (31-36%), lysine and methionine.
  • Its T.D.N value is 74 % and ME is 2,200 kcal/kg.
  • It can be included upto 3% in chick ration and upto 5% in grower and layer ration.
  • It has rich calcium and phosphorus content of about 0.6% and 0.1% respectively.
  • Utilization of mustard cake in poultry diet is not common due to presence of glucosinolates, erucic acid, tannin and higher crude fibre.

7. Sesame seed meal / Gingelly oil cake / Til oil cake

  • It contains 40% protein, rich in leucine, arginine and methionine but low lysine.
  • It was produced from the residues of sesame meal after removal of oil from sesame seed.
  • There are three varities – red, black, white.
  • White is of high nutritive value than red.
  • The ME content in black til cake is higher than that of red variety (1,700 and 1,500 kcal/kg respectively).
  • It has high phytic acid and oxalates.
  • It can be included upto 10% in chick ration and 15% in grower and layer ration.
  • Supplementation of lysine, phytase and Zn will enhance the nutritive value of til cake for poultry.

Animal protein

1. Fish meal

  • Fish is an excellent source of protein, containing adequate concentrations of limiting amino acids like lysine, methionine and threonine.
  • It is also rich in available P, Ca, Se, iodine and vitamin B12.
  • Fish meal is the one of the best poultry feed stuffs and a good source of animal protein.
  • Its composition varies widely depending upon whether it is made from whole bony fish or fish canary scraps.
  • The protein content of fish meal is usually around 60% with a digestibility of 93-95%.
  • The presence of fish scales reduces its feeding value.
  • It can be included upto 10% in the ration.

2. Meat meal

  • It is rich in crude protein (50- 55%) and ash (21%) with high calcium about 8% and 4% phosphorus.
  • It is low in methionine and tryptophan.
  • Good sources of vitamins of B complex, especially riboflavin, choline, nicotinamide and B12.

3. Meat and bone meal

  • Besides a good source of high quality protein, it is a good source of calcium and phosphorus.
  • The carcasses of unproductive and dead animals and offals from slaughter house waste are sterilized and made into meal.
  • The quality of meal is variable depending upon the processing methods and the proportion of gelatin it contains.
  • The variable quality, contamination and content of phosphorus limit the use of these meals.
  • The sterilized meat and bone meal can be included upto 5% in the poultry ration.

Milling by products

1. Rice bran

  • It is the outer coarse coat of the rice grain separated during processing.
  • Rice bran is a valuable product with 12-14% of protein, 13% fibre and 11-18% fat mostly with unsaturated fatty acids and hence it becomes rancid rapidly.
  • The oil removed rice bran is available as deoiled rice bran.
  • It is a good source of energy (ME 2900 kcal/kg) and B- complex group of vitamins.
  • It is high in phytate (1.28%).
  • Antioxidants are recommended while storing rice bran.
  • Rice bran has a good amino acid profile compared to cereal grains and is slightly deficient in lysine.
  • It can be included upto 20% in the chick ration and 30% in the grower and layer ration.

2. Wheat bran

  • Wheat bran is an excellent food with more fiber content.
  • It is laxative when mashed with warm water but tends to counter act scouring when it was given dry.
  • It can be included upto 5% in the chick ration and 10% in the grower and layer ration.

3. Polishing

  • During rice polishing this by products accumulates which contains    10-15% protein, 12% fat and 3-4% crude fiber.
  • It is rich in B- complex and good source of energy.
  • Due to high fat content rancidity may occur.

4. Molasses

  • It is a byproduct produced during juice / extract prepared from selected plant material.
  • It is a concentrated water solution of sugars, hemicelluloses and minerals.
  • Four varities of molasses are commonly available viz. cane molasses, beet molasses, citrus molasses and wood molasses.
  • It is palatable, reduces dustiness and improves pelleting.
  • Cane molasses is a product of sugar industry and contains 3% protein with 10% ash.
  • Beet molasses is a product during production of beet sugar and has higher protein (6%).
  • Citrus molasses is bitter in taste with highest protein (14%) and produced when oranges or grapes are processed for juice.
  • Wood molasses is a product of paper industry with 2% protein.
  • Molasses is a good source of energy and an appetiser.
  • It reduces dustiness in ration and is very useful as binder in pellet making.
  • It can be included upto 2% in the chick ration and 5% in the grower and layer ration.

E. Animal and vegetable fat

  • Fat (Vegetable/Animal) provides 2.25% more energy than carbohydrate or protein.
  • Oil and fat reduces the dustiness in feed and lessens the wear on feed mixing equipments.
  • Vegetable oil like corn oil, Groundnut oil, sunflower oil and animal fat like lard, tallow are extensively used in livestock feeding.
  • Animal fat contains saturated as well as unsaturated fatty acids of C20, C22, and C24.
  • Vegetable fats contain greater proportion of linoleic acid.
  • Higher level of poly unsaturated fatty acids leads to rancidity and therefore anti oxidants like Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) or Ethoxyquin should be included in high fat diet.

Nutritional requirement of layers and broilers

Characteristic

Broiler starter feed

Broiler finisher feed

Chick feed

Growing chicken feed

Laying chicken feed

Breeder layer feed

Moisture (maximum %)

11

11

11

11

11

11

Crude protein (N x 6.25) (maximum %)

23

20

20

16

18

18

Crude fibre

(maximum %)

6

6

7

8

8

8

Acid-insoluble ash (maximum %)

3.0

3.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

Salt (as NaCl) (maximum %)

0.6

0.6

0.6

0.6

0.6

0.6

Calcium (Ca)

(maximum %)

1.2

1.2

1.0

1.0

3.0

3.0

Available phosphorus

(minimum %)

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

Lysine (maximum %)

1.2

1.0

0.9

0.6

0.65

0.65

Methionine

(maximum %)

0.50

0.35

0.3

0.25

0.30

0.30

Metabolizable energy

(minimum cal/kg)

2 800

2 900

2 600

2 500

2 600

2 600

Manganese(mg/kg)

90

90

90

50

55

90

Iodine (mg/kg)

1

1

1

1

1

1

Iron (mg/kg)

120

120

120

90

75

90

Zinc (mg/kg)

60

60

60

50

75

100

Copper (mg/kg)

12

12

12

9

9

12

Vitamin A (IU/kg)

6 000

6 000

6 000

6 000

8 000

8 000

Vitamin D3(IU/kg)

600

600

600

600

1 200

1 200

Thiamine(mg/kg)

5

5

5

3

3

3

Riboflavin(mg/kg)

6

6

6

5

5

8

Pantothenic acid(mg/kg)

15

15

15

15

15

15

Nicotinic acid(mg/kg)

40

40

40

15

15

15

Biotin (mg/kg)

0.2

0.2

0.02

0.15

0.15

0.20

Vitamin B12(mg/kg)

0.015

0.015

0.015

0.01

0.010

0.01

Folic acid(mg/kg)

1.0

1.0

1.0

0.5

0.5

0.5

Choline (mg/kg)

1 400

1 000

1 300

900

800

800

Vitamin E(mg/kg)

15

15

15

10

10

15

Vitamin K(mg/kg)

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

Pyridoxine(mg/kg)

5

5

5

5

5

8

Linoleic acid(g/100 g)

1

1

1

1

1

1

Methionine + cystine (g/100 g)

0.9

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.55

0.55

Source: BIS. Poultry feeds - specifications, fourth revision.

 

Source: Expert System on Poultry, ICAR-TANUVAS-TNAU

3.00371747212
Shivangi bhagat Jun 19, 2019 04:13 PM

Feeding practices recommend as per the bureau of Indian standards in poultry

Shivangi bhagat Jun 19, 2019 04:02 PM

Feeding practices recommend as per the bureau of Indian standards in poultry

Yatin K Dandekar May 26, 2019 08:51 AM

Please send me details of layer poultry feed along with cost

ibrahim mohd isah Apr 17, 2019 07:48 PM

what are the percentge af feed additive in 100kg feed broilers and layer

Syed Aug 28, 2018 08:35 PM

Can anyone help me with complete information about preparing boiler finisher feeds.
Email : syed.*******@gmail.com

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