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India Enterprise Architecture

This topic provides information related to India Enterprise Architecture (IndEA).

India Enterprise Architecture (IndEA) is a way to establish Unity in Diversity in the domain of e-Governance. It is a framework that enables the development and implementation of Enterprise Architectures independently and in parallel by all governments and their agencies across India, conforming to the same models and standards. It enables planned development through architecture thinking.

IndEA has been notified as a e-Governance standard by the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) in October 2018.

Vision

To establish best-in-class architectural governance, processes and practices with optimal utilization of ICT infrastructure and applications to offer ONE Government experience to the citizens and businesses.

Purpose

The primary purpose of IndEA is to help state governments, ministries and departments in the governments at various levels to adopt a structured approach for developing their enterprise architecture. This is necessitated due to inconsistent maturity levels that exist in various government entities with respect to architecture driven approach to digital governance, yet mandated to adopt Digital India. Therefore, IndEA is expected to fill a clear gap in current capability and drive its adoption in an effective manner to build a digital economy.

Scope

IndEA is a collection of architecture reference models. Reference models are documented best practices for solutions delivery teams to make effective design and technology choices. The purpose of the reference models is to increase adoption of standards, speed up service design and delivery, and advance towards the target state architecture. IndEA aims at:

  • Documenting and sharing explicit and implicit architecture best practices;
  • Providing guidance in the development of enterprise architectures;
  • Capturing the key elements of architecture and inter-relationships between them;
  • Providing the means for architecture governance by enabling an audit process;
  • Enabling the adoption of standards based on common understanding;

Intended Audience

IndEA is intended for the following groups:

  • All state governments, central government ministries and other government departments especially those that do not currently have an enterprise architecture initiative or are just in the early stages of their enterprise architecture development;
  • Senior government officials who have been tasked to oversee and guide enterprise architecture initiatives to augment their understanding and promote active commitment;
  • Government Leaders, Chief Architects, Analysts and Designers seeking better, quicker and easier approaches to respond to the needs of their internal and external customers;

Structure

IndEA provides a generic framework, (based on The Open Group Architecture Framework -TOGAF) comprising of a set of architecture reference models, which can be converted into a Whole-of-Government Architecture for India, Ministries, States, Govt. Agencies etc. The IndEA framework is based on federated architecture approach and recognizes the need to accommodate both greenfield (new) and brownfield (existing / legacy) eGovernance initiatives.

The framework is based on 36 principles and 08 reference models supported by a globally acceptable standards.

Reference models of IndEA

In line with other globally known architectural frameworks, the structure of IndEA consists of a number of Reference Models, each dealing with a specific domain of the Enterprise Architecture.

A Reference Model is an abstract representation of the entities relevant to a domain of the Enterprise Architecture, the inter-relationships among those and the standards to be followed. All the Reference Models follow 3 basic attributes namely, abstraction, standards-base and technology-neutrality.

IndEA framework comprises of 8 Reference Models - Business, Application, Data, Technology, Performance, Security, Integration and Architecture Governance.

IndEA RM

Principles of IndEA

An Enterprise Architecture is to be founded on a set of Principles that inform and guide the Architecture Development process. A good set of Principles should satisfy five criteria, namely, Understandable, Robust, Complete, Consistent and Stable. Citizen-centricity, Outcome-focus, Standardization, Reusability and Integration are the key mantrasfollowed while designing IndEA.

PrincipleStatement
Performance
SDG Linkage Performance Measurement Systems derive from and are linked to Sustainable Development Goals prioritized by the Government.
Outcome Orientation All Performance Measurement Systems are outcome-oriented
Identifying Performance Categories through Value-Chain Performance Measurement Categories must cover the entire value chain such that the KPIs at each step of the service can be monitored and performance optimized.
Enable quantitative and qualitative date driven decisions The PRM must enable quantitative and qualitative data driven decisions through a better analysis of the actual output & outcome.
Business
Maximization of benefit All information Management decision are made to maximize the benefit to Government as a whole.
Prioritization of SDG Initiative Enterprise Architecture efforts focus on the SDG initiatives prioritized by the Government.
Integrated Services Integrated Service that cut across agency-silos are identified, designed and delivered through multiple delivery channels, to realize the vision of ONE Government.
Process RE-engineering Existing processes are re-engineered to eliminate non-value-adds and to make the services citizen-centric / business-centric.
Application

Ease of Use Applications are easy to use, with the underlying technologies being transparent to the users.
Sharing & Reusability All commonly required Applications are abstracted to be built once and deployed across the Whole-of-Government through reuse and sharing. Sharing & Resuability shall be subject to conformance with the principles of Security & privacy.
Technology Independence Application Design is open standards-based and technology-independent.
Application Security Applications are secure by design and developed using secure coding standards and practices.
Data
Data Assest

Data is an asset that has a specific and measurable value to the Government and is managed accordingly.

Archive and preserve all information (both in raw and aggregated form) exchanged, especially outside the government ecosystem, for future reference and if needed, for resolution of disputes. The Archival and preservations must be in accordance with the applicable regulatory requirements.

Data-Sharing Data is shared across the Government, subject to rights and privileges, so as to prevent duplicative sets of data by different agencies. Data Sharing shall be subject to conformance with the principles of Security & Privacy.
Data Trustee Each data set has a trustee accountable for data quality and security.
Data Security Data is protected from loss, unauthorized for data quality and Security.
Common Vocabulary Data is defined consistently throughout all levels of Government, and the definitions are understandable and available to all users.
Technology
Technology Independent Architecture Enterprise Architectures are developed in a technology-neutral manner so as to avoid captivity to a specific product or implementation method.
Future-Proof Architecture Enterprise Architectures are suitably designed and developed so as to be future-proof, not requiring frequent revisions with the advent of every new technology.
Open Standards Open Standards are adopted in the design and implementation of all greenfield systems. Legacy systems are incentivized to migrate to open standards, where required.
Shared Infrastructure IT Infrastructure is shared to ensure optimal utilization and effective maintenance.
Cloud First Cloud infrastructure is chosen by default for deployment of applications and on-site option is resorted to only with strong justification.
Mobile First Mobile channels are the mandatory  for delivery of all services, among all delivery channels.
Availability The information systems along with the applications and services are available 24 x 7.
Integration
Openness and Transparency Government data is made open, barring exceptions, so that external parties can build services.
Interoperability Interoperability is assured through adoption of open standards and open interfaces.
Data Portability Data is easily transferable and usable across jurisdictions, applications and systems.
Primary of User Experience All service interactions are designed with citizens at the core, by providing integrated multi-channel service delivery.
Elimination of Digital Divide Digital public services are available to citizens and users belonging to all groups, and there are no differences and discrimination based on location (rural versus urban), access to technological infrastructure, and physical abilities.
Multilingualism Services are delivered in language/s that are preferred by the consuming populations with the option of multi-lingual support, wherever feasible.
Security
Data Integrity Data is correct, consistent and un-tampered.
Data Privacy and Confidentially Data is shared on a Need-To-Know basis and is collected / accessed / modified only by authorized personnel.
Architecture Governance
Primary of Principles These principles of enterprise information management apply to all organizations in Government.
Discipline All Stakeholders of EA Governance structure need to follow the discipline of conformance to the principles and standards.
Transparency The architectural decision taken are transparent to all stakeholders.
Accountability Stakeholders, including service providers are accountable for the responsibility assigned to them in the Architecture Development and Implementation, and in strict adherence to these principles.

To access the complete document, click here.

To access the IndEA Adoption Guide, click here.

Source : NeGD, MeitY

Related resources

  1. IndEA Primer
3.02777777778
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