Irrigation Water Management
This topic provides select best practices related to Irrigation Water Management.
Mission Kakatiya, Telangana
Place of implementation : Telangana
Implementing agency : Telangana State Government
Mission Kakatiya is a flagship program under Telangana government aimed at restoring minor irrigation sources of water like ponds and tanks. The objective is to enhance the development of Minor Irrigation infrastructure, strengthening community based irrigation management in a decentralized manner and to adopt a comprehensive programme for restoration of tanks and sources of water to effectively utilize 265 TM of water allocated for minor irrigation sector under Godavari and Krishna river Basins. Gram Sabha were conducted and the proposed plans were discussed with the villagers. Farmers were motivated to co-operate and were suggested to deposit the silt for field preparation. Several district level coordination committees were formed. Emphasis was given for improvement in delivery time of services. Steps like tank de-siltation, restoration of the feeder channels, re-sectioning of irrigation channels, repair of bund, weir and sluice, raising of FTL (Full Tank Level) wherever required were carried out.
The intervention helped in increasing the storage capacity of tanks and other water bodies. It helped in making water available and accessible to small and medium farmers in particular and benefitted other farmers as well. The intervention helped in increasing the water retention capacity of the sources and also helped in improving the on-farm moisture retention capacity. The intervention bridged the 63% ayacut gap and also helped in stabilization of ayacut under minor irrigation. Measures like mixing of the slit on farm land preparation reduced the use of chemical fertilizers and also improved the land water retention capacity. An appreciable change was observed in the nutritive values of the soil. It resulted in diversification of high value crop and crop intensification and also gave rise to loop irrigation. Other achievements that accompanied the project are development of fisheries and livestock and rise in the ground water levels in that area. The increase in plantati on of palm trees on the slopes also added to the income generation for the rural people.
- Public participation will lead to ownership and help in long-term sustainability of the interventions.
- Restoration and maintenance of water resources should be a continual process and local people should be trained to manage their resources.
For more information visit missionkakatiya.cgg.gov.in
Narmada (Sanchore), Rajasthan
Place of implementation : Rajasthan
Implementing agency : Government of Rajasthan
The use of micro irrigation technology like sprinkler and drip irrigation was made mandatory. Several initiatives that were taken up during the course were encouragement and enforcement of PIM (Participatory Irrigation Management) and formation of 2236 Water Users Association (WUA) for effective water management. Judicious usage of bio drainage in command area and tree plantation along the 1570 km length of canal was also taken up. Wide variety of salinity resistant crop for plantation was proposed. Steps were taken up for reduction of water allowance to handle drainage and salinity issues. Command Area Development and Water Management work were taken in tandem. The construction of canal network to utilize the full potential was created. Further steps like conjunctive ground water and surface water use has been proposed.
The adoption of sprinkler irrigation system in place of conventional irrigation method resulted in numerous benefits. The Culturable Command Area (CCA) increased from 1.35 Lac hectares to 2.46 hectares with same quantity of water by adopting Sprinkler system in the entire project. There has been significant reduction in losses, both in cultivation and land loss. A comparatively high amount of efficiency is attained with automation and mechanization of the facility and irrigating structure. Outcomes of the irrigation intervention enabled extension of benefit from 89 villages to 233. Drinking water facility has also been provided in 1541 villages and three towns, which was not proposed earlier. The food production has increased from 534 cr. to 1480 cr. i.e. by 946 cr. (277%) based on year 2013-14. 20% of the area has been dedicated to growing Kharif crop in the modified project.
- Micro irrigation processes help in achieving high efficiency and reduces water use as in the conventional methods.
- Establishment of integrated irrigation system that comprises of canal systems, micro irrigation facilities and a network that even handles the problems of salinity, soil moisture, drainage etc.
- Conjunctive use of ground and surface water.
For more information, visit www.cwc.gov.in
Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh - ‘Har Khet ko Paani’
Place of implementation : Andhra Pradesh
Implementing agency : Ministry of Water Resources, River Development & Ganga Rejuvenation
The steps taken up during intervention were renovation of traditional water structures and promotion of crop diversification. Under the program "Har Khet Ko Pani" comprehensive Repair, Renovation and Restoration (RRR) of all components in the chain of Tanks was carried out through extensive training of newly formed 610 WUAs and 1383 Community Based Organisations (CBOs). The State programme: "Neeru Pragathi" was also implemented and beneficial outcomes were seen during the course. Under More Crop per Drop, the advanced technologies were installed and the bore well mapping was done. By implementation of GIS based technologies like geo-tagging of assets the online application procedure was simplified. The highest priority was given to creating many water harvesting structures and SMC works under MGNREGS (Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme). Other steps like incorporation of solar pumping methods, promotion of drip and sprinkler Micro-Irrigation (MI) techniques of irrigation and several other sustainable methods of modern day agriculture were also promoted.
The impact of the intervention was remarkable as it sets benchmark and suggests several best practices for sustainable agriculture. Through this intervention, the irrigation potential was increased by 5,023 Ha, with increase in coverage under micro irrigation by 28, 324 Ha. Approximately 45,000 water harvesting structures have been created across the whole area in the district. These practices also led to a remarkable rise in water table at some points which was estimated as 32.37m to 10.15m. The increase in area under mulching with drip irrigation was 6000Ha and resulted in 60% water saving over the conventional method that were being followed. The concept of loop irrigation was also introduced in that area.
- Restoration and renovation of water bodies can lead to water use efficiency
- Optimal utilisation of the resources.
- Creation of WUAs helped in sustainability of the project.
For more information, visit mowr.gov.in/
Mulching: Harvesting Many Benefits in Cardamom, Kerala
Place of implementation : Western Ghats
Implementing agency : The Indian Cardamom Research Institute (ICRI)
Any material, usually organic, that is spread on the ground to protect the soil and the roots of plants from the effects of soil crusting, erosion, or freezing is known as a Mulch. A mulch may be made of materials such as straw, sawdust, grass clippings, peat moss, leaves, or paper etc. For large areas under cultivation a tilled layer of soil serves the purpose of a mulch but intensive cultivation of cardamom, ignoring the traditional cultural practices, has resulted in repeated losses. The Indian Cardamom Research Institute (ICRI) studied the soil fertility on a farm and found that the organic carbon/humus content is higher in the farms where this technique is practiced compared to neighbouring plantation. The soil bulk density is also very low. Mulching reduced the acidity of the soil and increased the soil moisture.
The studied showed significant achievements like high humus content on farm. It was observed that mulching resulted in several advantages - the plant growth is healthy and the damage due to thrips on capsules and stem borer is negligible; the height of the 17 year old plant is 15 – 20 feet tall and there are about 100 tillers in each clump. Usually cardamom fields are replanted with new suckers in 8 - 10 years of cultivation. But mulching helped in retaining the plantation successfully for 17 years with compact clumps. There is no need for weeding as the soil is not exposed and self-shade of cardamom clumps discourages weed growth.
- Mulching helps in conserving soil moisture
- It also acts as temperature regulator in hot summers and cold winters.
- Live mulching technique is very good for nitrogen fixation.
- Organic waste generated from field can fruitfully be utilised to reap significant benefits.
- Growth of unwanted weeds can be cont rolled in farm using this technique.
Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM) - Waghad, Maharashtra
Place of implementation : Maharashtra
Implementing agency : Ministry of Water Resources, River Development & Ganga Rejuvenation
The steps carried out during the intervention were awareness programs that promoted conjunctive use of surface and ground water and enforcement of water use entitlement which is monitored and regulated by Maharashtra Water Resources Regulatory Authority. Steps were taken up to achieve equitable distribution of the resources using the tail to head principle. As gender realisation and equal participation of both men and women is need of an hour thus during formation of WUA’s equal and active participation of women was also encouraged. The integrated approach for participation of several stakeholders was done during the course of institution building. The farmers contributed 50 Lakh for rehabilitation cost and 15% cost of office building. Also formation of CMC for supervising rehabilitation works was also done.
There was an improvement in water use efficiency and water productivity of irrigation projects through participation of farmers in irrigation management. WUAs were formed and the area covered by of entire project was around 10000 Ha. The overall irrigation area increased from 7885 Ha in 2004 to 9354 Ha in 2014-15. The water saving was 27%. In addition to this the drip irrigation coverage increased from 25% in 2004-05 to 40% in 2014-15 with approximately 100% recovery of water charges. The area saw an increase in average income from INR 60000 to INR 2, 92,139.
- Participatory approach can help is judicious use of resources.
- Representation of an equitable percentage of women in formation and working of WUA’s is highly important.
- Tail to head distribution of resources helps in achieving equity.
- Capital and labour contribution in building of an institutional structure gives a sense of ownership to the beneficiaries.
For more information, visit mowr.gov.in/
Micro-irrigation in Gujarat
Place of implementation : Gujarat
Implementing agency : Gujarat Green Revolution Company Ltd.
The intervention was an integrated approach to promote uniformity of provisions under various schemes to remove their inequalities and anomalies. The objective was establishment of a special purpose vehicle–Gujarat Green Revolution Company which would promote and implement Micro Irrigation Scheme in Gujarat. The initiative educated the farmers in adoption of scientific water management techniques and benefits of value-addition in crop production and marketing of their produces. The initiative embarked upon Jal Sanchay Abhiyan which is a drive for Storage of Water in which the Micro-Irrigation Scheme is an integral part of the programme. The Gujarat Green Revolution initiative also took care of providing electricity connections to approximately 1,16,146 farmers on a priority basis who adopted Micro-Irrigation Systems on their agricultural lands.
The intervention in true sense set a green revolution. From the time of implementation till 2014, a total number of 6, 40,853 farmers had adopted Micro Irrigation Systems (MIS) in a total area of 10, 34,930 Ha and were able to reap out on the benefits of the program. In many tribal areas, 1,31,293 farmers adopted Micro-Irrigation System over a cumulative area of 1,78,745 Ha. Out of the total area of 10,34,930 Ha covered under the Micro-Irrigation Scheme, 4,96,305 Ha has been covered under Drip Irrigation and 5,38,625 Ha under Sprinkler Irrigation. Gujarat has achieved double digit growth in agriculture sector and the state is a pioneer of second green revolution in the country. Farmers' earnings have increased due to progressive agriculture policies of the state government.
- This model sets as a benchmark that could be implemented across nation.
- Strict monitoring and dedicated agencies played a crucial role in making the programme a success.
- Effective storage and management of water is equally important as is the availability.
Pani Panchayat: Orissa Water Resource Consolidation Project
Place of implementation : Odisha
Implementing agency : Department of Water Resources, Odisha
The primary objective of Orissa Water Consolidation Project (OWRCP) was to improve the planning and development process for the state’s water resource; thus increasing the overall agricultural productivity through investments for improvement of the existing scheme. Participatory Irrigation Management was introduced in Orissa in 1995 on a pilot basis under Orissa Water Resources. Consolidation Project (OWRCP) under the banner of Farmers Organization and Turnover (FOT). Experiencing its success at large, it was extended to all the commands of Major, Medium, Minor and Lift Irrigation Projects. The main objectives of the intervention were to promote and secure equitable distribution of water among its users, adequate maintenance of irrigation system, efficient and economical utilization of water to optimize agricultural production and to protect the environment and to ensure ecological balance inculcating sense of ownership of the irrigation system in accordance with the water budget and the operational plan.
The intervention has a well-defined institutional framework. The legal system comprises of several acts and policy framework “The Odisha Pani Panchayat Act-2002” has been enforced in the state since 15.11.2002, “The Odisha Pani Panchayat Rules” 2003 has also been enforced since 23.04.2003. Prior to enforcement of Pani Panchayat Act & Rules, Pani Panchayats were registered under the Societies Registration Act-1860. Some amendments to the 2002 Pani Panchayat Act has been made since then like inclusion of fisher folk, increase in tenure of Pani Panchayat office Bearers and Executive Body from 3 years to 6 years subject to replacement of 50% by lottery, election of members from the Chaks on a rotational basis and representing, head, middle and tail reach and inclusion of women by reservation of 1/3rd of the total number of seats in the Executive Committee. Other outcomes that mark the empowerment of Pani Panchayat are like a quarterly Publication of Pani Panchayat Samachar that helps in exchange of knowledge, organization of Pani Panchay at fortnight from 26th December to 9th January every year, broadcasting of program on All India Radio and Television, felicitation of best performing Pani Panchayats during the fortnight celebration every year, regular on campus and off campus training pro gram by Water and Law Management Institute Orissa (WALMI) and interstate and intra-state training-cum-exposure visit.
- The success stories published in the quarterly journal “Krushak Bandhu Arnapurna” helps in exchange of knowledge with larger audience.
- Bottom-up institutional framework helps in sustained and effective management of the resource.
- Capacity development helps in continual improvement of the office bearers
Source : NITI Aayog