This topic provides information about causes of head injuries, signs and first aid to be given when there is no immediate medical help.
When to look for a head injury
If someone falls, gets hit in the head, or is in a vehicle accident, watch for signs of brain injury. It can be difficult to tell if there is brain injury if the person has been drinking or using drugs because many of these signs can be the same. Also check anyone with a head injury for neck or spine injuries, as these two can go together.
Signs of mild brain injury or concussion
- Confusion or loss of consciousness that gets better on its own in a short time
- Not remembering what happened
- Temporary blurry vision or “seeing stars”
- Nausea or vomiting that does not last long
- Headache, dizziness, or tiredness
Signs of severe brain injury
Get help for any of these signs:
- Severe or worsening headache, changes in vision, loss of balance
- Nausea and vomiting
- Confusion, personality changes, aggression
- Irregular (very slow or very fast) heart rate
- Fast, shallow breathing or breathing that is irregular (sometimes fast, sometimes slow)
- Warm, flushed skin
- Blood or clear fluid leaking from the ears or nose
These signs may happen hours after the injury:
- One pupil bigger than the other
- Bruises around both eyes or behind the ear
What to do
When there is a mild brain injury
Watch the person constantly. If s/he goes to sleep, wake her every few hours to see if s/he can still answer questions and think clearly. In the hours after the injury, if the person becomes more confused, gets a headache that gets worse and worse, or loses consciousness or has a seizure, there is likely bleeding inside the skull and immediate medical help is needed.
Bleeding from the head
Head wounds bleed a lot. If you are sure the spine is not injured, ask the person to sit up, or prop her up, to decrease bleeding, as you seek medical assistance.
Source : Where there is no doctor