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Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction

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The NDMP is consistent with the approaches promoted globally by the United Nations, in particular the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 (hereafter “Sendai Framework”) adopted at the Third UN World Conference in Sendai, Japan, on March 18, 2015 (UNISDR 2015a) as the successor instrument to the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015. It is a non-binding agreement, which the signatory nations, including India, will attempt to comply with on a voluntary basis. However, India will make all efforts to contribute to the realization of the global targets by improving the entire disaster management cycle in India by following the recommendations in the Sendai Framework and by adopting globally accepted best practices.

The Sendai Framework was the first international agreement adopted within the context of the post- 2015 development agenda. Two other major international agreements followed it in the same year: the Sustainable Development Goals 2015 – 2030 in September, and the UNCOP21 Climate Change agreement to combat human-induced climate change in December. DRR is a common theme in these three global agreements. The Paris Agreement on global climate change points to the importance of averting, minimizing, and addressing loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change, including extreme weather events and slow onset events, and the role of sustainable development in reducing the risk of loss and damage. These three agreements recognize the desired outcomes in DRR as a product of complex and interconnected social and economic processes, which overlap across the agendas of the three agreements. Intrinsic to sustainable National Disaster Management Plan development is DRR and the building of resilience to disasters. Further, effective disaster risk management contributes to sustainable development.

Major Departures

In the domain of disaster management, the Sendai Framework provides the way forward for the period ending in 2030. There are some major departures in the Sendai Framework:

  • For the first time the goals are defined in terms of outcome-based targets instead of focusing on sets of activities and actions.
  • It places governments at the center of disaster risk reduction with the framework emphasizing the need to strengthen the disaster risk governance.
  • There is significant shift from earlier emphasis on disaster management to addressing disaster risk management itself by focusing on the underlying drivers of risk.
  • It places almost equal importance on all kinds of disasters and not only on those arising from natural hazards.
  • In addition to social vulnerability, it pays considerable attention to environmental aspects through a strong recognition that the implementation of integrated environmental and natural resource management approaches is needed for disaster reduction
  • Disaster risk reduction, more than before, is seen as a policy concern that cuts across many sectors, including health and education

As per the Sendai Framework, in order to reduce disaster risk, there is a need to address existing challenges and prepare for future ones by focusing on monitoring, assessing, and understanding disaster risk and sharing such information. The Sendai Framework notes that it is “urgent and critical to anticipate, plan for and reduce disaster risk” to cope with disaster. It requires the strengthening of disaster risk governance and coordination across various institutions and sectors. It requires the full and meaningful participation of relevant stakeholders at different levels. It is necessary to invest in the economic, social, health, cultural and educational resilience at all levels. It requires investments in research and the use of technology to enhance multi-hazard Early Warning Systems (EWS), preparedness, response, recovery, rehabilitation, and reconstruction.

The Four Priorities for Action

  • Priority 1. Understanding disaster risk Disaster risk management should be based on an understanding of disaster risk in all its dimensions of vulnerability, capacity, exposure of persons and assets, hazard characteristics and the environment. Such knowledge can be used for risk assessment, prevention, mitigation, preparedness and response.
  • Priority 2. Strengthening disaster risk governance to manage disaster risk Disaster risk governance at the national, regional and global levels is very important for prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response, recovery, and rehabilitation. It fosters collaboration and partnership.
  • Priority 3. Investing in disaster risk reduction for resilience Public and private investment in disaster risk prevention and reduction through structural and non-structural measures are essential to enhance the economic, social, health and cultural resilience of persons, communities, countries and their assets, as well as the environment.
  • Priority 4. Enhancing disaster preparedness for effective response and to “Build Back Better” in recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction The growth of disaster risk means there is a need to strengthen disaster preparedness for response, take action in anticipation of events, and ensure capacities are in place for effective response and recovery at all levels. The recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction phase is a critical opportunity to build back better, including through integrating disaster risk reduction into development measures.

Source : UNISDR

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