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Ethnoveterinary practices in animal care

Tympany

Symptoms : Stomach bulged and difficulties in breathing

Causes : sudden change in feed materials, excess intake of legumes, dining waste.

Treatment

  • 200 ml each of castor oil (Ricinus communis) and lukewarm water are shaken well and administered orally at an interval of 4-6 hrs for large animals.
  • Betel leaves (paan) 10 number, ginger (Adrak) 20 gm, pepper (kalimirch) 10 gm, garlic (Lahsun) 10 gm, rock salt 50 gm are pounded and mixed in lukewarm water and administered orally at 6 hours interval for large animals.
  • Reduce the quantity to small animals according to the body weight of animals.

PaanAdrak

Paan                                                                    Adrak

Diarrhea

Symptoms : watery dung

Causes : Indigestion, intake of spoiled feed or eating toxic plants.

Treatment

Grind one handful each of tender leaves of pomegranate, tender leaves of neem, tender leaves of guava along with dried ginger 50 gm, jaggery 100 gm and make 3 bolus and administer one bolus at a time for 3 times until diarrhea gets cured.

Neem Amrud_jamphal

Neem                                                                         Amrud , jamphal

Anaar

Anaar

Constipation

Symptoms : Lack of defecation or hard pelleted dung

Causes : Fever, heat stress and dehydration

Treatment

  • Enema can be given (boil 10 litres of water after adding 100 gm neem leaves and cooled and administer through rectum of large animals)
  • Laxatives like castor oil, liquid paraffin oil, raw linseed oil (500ml) can be given for 1-2 days according to species and body weight of animal. Given as drench for 2-3 days or as required. A decoction of 100 gm of haldi (turmeric rhizome) in a lit. of water may be given once daily for 1-3 days to large animals.

Endoparasites (Intestinal worms)

Symptoms : Animals emaciated, thick body hairs, foul smelling stools with worms

Causes : Round worms, tape worms, hook worms infestation

Treatment

  • Leaves of nirgundi (Vitex negundo), khorpad (Aloe vera), Neem seeds, kirayat (Andrographis paniculata), akamadar (Calotrophis) are to be taken at 1 kg each.
  • All are to be ground well by sprinkling little water and filtered and 4 litres of herbal mixture can be obtained.
  • This can be stored for one month.
  • Then 30 ml of the extract is taken and administered for one adult sheep or goat.
  • For younger sheep or goat less than 3 months old 10 ml has to be administered orally.
  • For adult cattle 100 ml has to be administered.The dewomer arrest loose motion and result in solid dung and it is free from obnoxious odor.
  • It increases grazing efficiency of animals and they look healthy.

Neem gheekumari

Neem                                                              Gheekumari

Batraj Nirgundi_sindvar

Batraj Nirgundi                                                      Sindvar

Madara_Aak

Madara, Aak

Ectoparasites (Lice, Ticks, Mites)

Symptoms: Presence of parasites visible all over the body, animal emaciated, dull and death in severe cases

Treatment

  • Garlic, Tulsi, neem leaves, turmeric, seethapal seeds each 10-20 gm are ground together and boiled in 250 ml of neem oil and applied over the surface of the body of large animal.
  • Whole plant of Raimuniya (Lantana camara) is chopped and crushed and diluted with the urine of cattle 3 days and apply externally.
  • Boil tobacco stalk 250 gm in 2 lit. of water and add 5 lit.of water and sprayed over the body of 10-20 animals.

RaimuniyaSeethapal

Raimuniya                                                           Seethapal

Tobacco

Tobacco

Respiratory tract infections

Symptoms : Heavy snoring, difficulty in breathing

Treatment

  • Take leaves of Thulsi (Ocimum sanctum) 100 gm, leaves of arusha (Adhatoda vasica) 100 gm, ginger 50 gm, pepper 10 gm, jaggery 100 gm and boil in 1 lit. of water and administer 100 – 250 ml of the decoction 2-3 times daily.
  • Few fruits (6-8 number) of kantakari / kateli (Solanum surattense) are crushed and soaked in goat urine over night and filtered and few drops are squeezed in to the nostrils.

Arusha kantakari_kateli

Arusha                                                                  Kantakari / Kateli

Foot and mouth disease

Sympotms : Ulcers in mouth and cleft of hooves, drooping saliva and difficult to walk

Causes : Virus

Treatment :

  • Ingredients required : Turmeric 200 gm (freshly harvested rhizome is preferred), coconut kernel extract (from 1 coconut), gheekumari (Aloe vera) – 200 gm, palm jaggery 200 gm, common salt 100 gm, garlic 100 gm, pepper 50 gm, cumin 50 gm, fenugreek 50 gm.
  • The above ingredients viz. turmeric, gheekumari (Aloe vera), garlic, grated coconut are ground well through grinder/ mixi by using sufficient water and collected in a vessel.
  • Then make powder of pepper, cumin, fenugreek and all ingredients are mixed together thoroughly and add sufficient water to make it about 1 liter.
  • Then filter it and administer orally.
  • Dose : 100 ml at a time for adult animals or 50 ml for young ones or sheep or goats. Before giving the treatment the animals are to be fed with banana (2 number) soaked in sesame oil (50 ml).

For treatment of wounds in the foot region:

A special wound healing thaila can be prepared by using following ingredients:

  • Sesame oil 1 lit, haldi (freshly harvested preferred or turmeric powder 50gm) 100gm, garlic - 50gm; neem leaves 10 gm, leaves of mehanthi (Lawsonia inermis ) 10 gm, kuppi (Acalypa indica)10 gm.
  • Grind the herbal items and mix with the oil and boil the oil well and filter it.
  • The oil can be stored in a bottle. This thailam can be applied over the affected foot region of animals for 3 days continuously or till the point of cure.

OR

  • Coconut oil 500 ml. and Datura leaf extract 500ml are taken together and boiled in a vessel till about one hour so as to get oily texture.
  • Then put off the fire and add 5 gm of tuutiya (copper sulphate) and stir it well. Now this thailam is stored in a bottle and used for all types of wounds including maggot wounds in animals.

Also feed the animal with gruel prepared by boiling with ragi, wheat and bajra flour each 100 gm - 200gm with sufficient water in a vessel.

Datura kuppi

Datura                                                                         kuppi

Haldi gheekumari

 

Haldi                                                                 Gheekumari

Herbal masala bolus for all digestive problems

This preparation will be good for all digestive problems viz. anorexia, indigestion, off feed, absence of rumination, impaction etc.

Ingredients needed for 5 dairy animals / 10 sheep or goats are given below :

  • Kalimirch (Black pepper) - 10 gm
  • Jeera (cumin) - 10gm
  • Dhaniya (coriander seeds) - 20 gm
  • Fenugreek (methi) - 20 gm
  • Ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi) - 10 gm
  • Ginger (adrak) - 50 gm
  • Haldi (turmeric) - 50 gm (fresh)
  • Gheekumari (Aloe vera) - 100 gm
  • Galo / batindu (Tinospora cordifolia) stem and leaves - 100 gm
  • Lahsun (garlic) - 50 gm
  • Lallmirch (red pepper /chillies) - 50 gm
  • Paan (betel leaves) - 10 number
  • Kari patta (curry leaf) - 100 gm
  • Tulsi leaves - 50 gm
  • Tarwar leaves and flowers (Cassia auriculata) - 100gm
  • Nariyal (coconut) - 100 gm,
  • Gud (jaggery) - 100gm
  • Rock salt - 50 gm
  • Khaneka soda (sodium bicarborate) - 100 gm.

Process for preparation

  • First grind all dry items in a mixi viz. black pepper, jeera, coriander seeds, fenugreek, ajwain, red chillies). Then grind all the fresh herbs viz. Aloe vera, curry leaf, garlic, tulsi, ginger, turmeric, coconut (grated), galo and tarwar. After that mix together both the above items.
  • Now add jaggery (after making into small pieces), and rock salt, (sodium bicarborate) and mix it thoroughly.

Dosage

  • Make a bolus of 100 gm each (lemon fruit size) and administer orally.
  • It can be given monthly once preferably in empty stomach.
  • For young animals (calf, sheep or goat) give half the quantity or reduce the quantity according to the body weight of animals.
  • The above preparation will be good for all digestive problems viz. anorexia, indigestion, impaction.
  • This will also give some relief for repeat breeding/reproductive problems, internal parasites, act as preventive medicine for Foot and Mouth Disease, Blue Tongue, fever, mastitis, Hemorrhagic septicemia.

gheekumari galo_batindu

Gheekumari Galo / Batindu

tarwar Karipatta

Tarwar Karipatta

Mastitis in dairy animals

Symptoms : swollen, hot udder; milk discolored with pus and thread like substance

Causes : Microbes

Treatment

  • Ingredients required: Gheekumari (Aloe vera ) - 2 or 3 petal, Haldi (Turmeric) powder- 50gm, Chunna (Lime stone)- 10 gm
  • All the above ingredients are ground well and made in to a paste apply over the udder thrice a day for 3-7 days depending upon the disease incidence.
  • Before applying, the udder and teats should be washed with boiled water for 3 times for 5 days.
Administer orally 50 gm of khaneka soda (sodium bicarbonate) in the juice of lemon (4 fruits) dissolved in 200 ml of water.

gheekumari Haldi

Gheekumari                                                                 Haldi

Infertility

  • For animals suffering repeat breeding, infertility or suboestrus or not coming to heat the following method has to be followed.
  • Administer orally Gheekumari (Aloe vera) 1-2 petals for 3 days in the empty stomach.
  • Administer orally sprouted chana dal (bengal gram) or sprouted bajra or sprouted wheat (200 gm daily) for 15 days.
  • When signs of oestrus cycle is noticed administer orally neem oil 100-150ml before taking the animal for insemination or natural crossing.

Chana dal gheekumari

Chana dal                                                           Gheekumari

Retention of placenta

Symptoms : Non – shedding of placenta beyond 3-5 hours post-partum

Treatment

  • The leaves of two sesame plants (Sesamum indicum) about 250 gm are pounded with 1000 ml of water and drenched; placenta would be shed in 1to 2 hour.
  • Take Bada goksur (Peadlium murex) plant about 200 gm, pound and soaked in 1000 ml of water and stir well and drenched.

sesame plants Bada goksur

Sesame plants                                                                Bada goksur

Prolapse of the uterus

Treatment :

  • Clean the mass with sugar added water or any antiseptic lotion.
  • Lift the mass by placing banana leaf with both hands (special care must be taken to avoid laceration or tear with nails, and hand must be washed in the antiseptic lotion).
  • Mostly the urinary bladder will be filled. After lifting of the mass urine will easily go out and the mass will easily go inside.
  • Leaves of Chhui-Mui (Mimosa pudica) whole plant two handfuls are ground well and mixed with 200 ml goat’s milk to be administered orally for three times (morning, evening and next day morning).
  • Keep the animal in a slightly slanting position in such a way that keeping the head portion in a lower level atleast for a week.

Chhui_Mui

Chhui-Mui

Blue tongue disease in sheep and goats

During rainy season, sheep farmers face economic loss due to sudden death of sheep by a new disease called as blue tongue disease.

Symptoms:

  • Ulcer in the mouth, oozing of fuzz like substance from the mouth and limping while walking and sometimes in the lying position.
  • If the animal is lifted the hairs in the body will fall off.
  • Animals will not take feed but drink little water.
  • In the severity of the disease the animal will die on 15th day or so.

Cause :

This disease is caused by a virus and mosquitoes or insects act as vectors.

Treatment

The animal has to administered orally the following recipe.

  • Banana fruits smeared with sesame oil and fed to animals for 2 to 3 times.
  • Half a litre of oil with 20 bananas are sufficient to treat 20 sheep.
  • By this animal will recover little. However, this will not control the disease fully.
  • Next the leaf pulp of Aloe vera (100 gm) has to be administered daily. Administering of Aloe vera has to be continued for more days till the animal fully recovers from this disease. Administering Aloe vera also increases the body weight of animals as it acts as dewormer against all intestinal parasites. This can also be administered as preventive treatment on monthly interval especially during rainy season.

gheekumari

Gheekumari

Poisonous bite or food poisoning

  • Leaves of betelvine, tulsi, pepper, dried ginger each 10 gm. are pound together and mixed in warm water and administered orally.
  • For poisonous bite, few drops of this extract are instilled to the eyes of the animal.

Paan Tulsi

Paan                                                                              Tulsi

Eye injuries

  • Leaves of bimba (Coccinia grandis) or castor (Ricinus communis) is crushed by mixed with a pinch of salt and the juice is applied for few drops in the eyes.

bimba castor

Bimba                                                                          Castor

Wounds

  • Prepare special thaila (oil) and apply over the wound: Coconut oil 250 ml. and Datura leaf extract 250ml are taken together and boiled in a vessel till about one hour so as to get oily texture.
  • Then put off the fire and add 2.5 gm of copper sulphate and stir it well.
  • Now this thaila is stored in a bottle and used for all types of wounds including maggot wounds in animals.

Datura

Datura

Panchagavya for animal health

  • This preparation overcome problems of infertility or repeat breeding.
  • Mix 5 products of cow (dung, urine, milk, curd, ghee) together by taking 1 kg of cow dung, 1 lit of milk, 1 lit of curd, 1 lit cow urine, 100 gm of ghee together.
  • In addition add 2 banana, sugarcane juice 1litre are added in a plastic barrel and allow them for 1 week for fermentation.
  • Now administer 200 ml-300 ml of  panchagavya monthly once for general upkeep of cattle or 100 ml for sheep or goat on monthly basis .
  • For dogs affected with skin disease (oozing of body fluid from the skin) can be given by administering 100 ml of panchagavya for 3 days continuously.
  • For poultry birds mix about 50 ml of panchagavya along with feed for feeding a dozen birds.
  • Panchagavya fed chicken lay eggs of bigger size and also the growth of the bird is quick and faster.

Milk fever or calcium deficiency

  • The disease usually occurs in dairy animals caused by decrease in blood-calcium level, generally within 48 hours after calving.
  • Take 1 kilo of lime (Calcium hydroxide) and put in a mudpot.
  • Add 20 litres of water and keep it overnight. Take 200 ml of supernatent water (top watery layer) and feed the animal daily.
  • While taking the upper layer of water add equal quantity of fresh water of 200 ml daily.
  • Every 20 days change the whole content.
  • This practice can be followed regularly and it prevents diseases caused due to calcium deficiency

Poultry diseases

Ranikhet disease

Symptoms : Diarrhea, excreta is watery, green with foul odor; discharge from the nose; coughing and sneezing; swelling of the head; head and neck twisted to one side; drooping wings, dragging legs; sleepiness; full, distended drop; convulsions and paralysis; death.

Precaution : The disease affected chicken are to be removed and kept separately.

Treatment

  • Leaves of utarn (Pergularia daemia) 20 gm, leaves of kirayat (Andrographis paniculata) 20 gm, fresh haldi (turmeric: Curcuma longa) 20 gm, garlic 20 gm and onion 20 gm are chopped together and fed with other poultry feed occasionally as preventive or curative treatment.

Utarn kirayat

Utarn                                                                      kirayat

Haldi

Haldi

Lice infestation of poultry

Symptoms : Small, white lice lay eggs on the feathers; lice moving on skin and feathers; reduced egg production; slower weight gain; birds constantly peck at themselves or scratch themselves with their beak.

Treatment

  • Spread crushed leaves of sithapal (Annona squamosa) or Calotrpis inside poultry nest and lice collected over the leaves can be disposed off hygienically.
  • Garlic, Tulsi, neem leaves, seethapal seeds, haldi (turmeric) each 10-20 gm are ground together and boiled in 250 ml of neem oil and applied over the surface of the body of 10-15 birds.

Seethapal Haldi

Seethapal                                                                    Haldi

Lasun Neem

Lasun                                                                         Neem

Tulsi

Tulsi

Source : Pashu sakhi Handbook



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