Hydroponics is a simple technique in which the plants are grown using water instead of soil. It is a subset of hydroculture. Mineral nutrient solutions are used as water solvent. Terrestrial plants may be grown with only their roots exposed to the nutritious liquid, or the roots may be physically supported by an inert medium such as perlite or gravel.
William Frederick Gericke working at the University of California, Berkeley, he began to popularize the idea that plants could be grown in a solution of nutrients and water instead of soil. He decided to call this growing method hydroponics. W. F. Gericke successfully growing 25-foot tall tomato plants in nutrient-filled solutions.
W.A. Setchell recommended the term "hydroponics" to Gericke in 1937. The word hydroponics comes from the roots “hydro”, meaning water, and “ponos”, meaning labor, in this method of gardening soil are not used.
Julius von Sachs and Wilhelm Knop delivered the first standard formula for the nutrient solutions dissolved in water, in which plants could be grown. This is the origin of "nutriculture". Today, it is called Water Culture. By this method, plants 'roots were totally immersed in a water solution that contained minerals of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), sulfur (S) and calcium (Ca). They are now seen as the macro elements or macronutrients (elements required in relatively large amounts).
1600: Belgian Jan Van Helmont
1699: John Woodward
1804: De Saussure
1860 & 1861: German botanists, Julius von Sachs, and Wilhelm Knop
1930: W.F. Gericke
1937: W.A. Setchell
1938: Agriculture bulletin published titled "The Water Culture Method for Growing Plants Without Soil"
1950: adopted by England, France, Italy, Spain, Sweden, the USSR, and Israel.
1960s, Allen Cooper of England developed the Nutrient film technique.
1982: The Land Pavilion at Walt Disney World's EPCOT Center opened and prominently features a variety of hydroponic techniques.
2007, Euro fresh Farms in Willcox, Arizona, sold more than 200 million pounds of hydroponically grown tomatoes. Recorded in 1st on list of export.