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Amla Crop Stage Wise IPM

ManagementActivity

Pre-Planting

Common cultural practices:

  • Timely planting should be done.
  • Field sanitation, roguing
  • Destroy the alternate host plants
  • Apply manures and fertilizers as per soil test recommendations
  • Sow the ecological engineering plants
  • Sow the intercrops as per the season.
  • Sow/plant sorghum/maize/pearl millet in 4 rows all around the crops as a guard/barrier crop.
Nutrients
  • Apply 4 tonnes of well decomposed farm yard manure per acre
  • Apply 90:120:48 of NPK along with elemental sulphur 10 kg and micro nutrients 10 kg per acre.
  • 15 kg of FYM and 0.5 kg of phosphorus should be applied to each pit before planting.
Weeds
  • Regular weeding should be done
Resting stages of soil borne pathogens, pests

Cultural control:

  • Deep summer ploughing of fields to control soil borne pathogens and subsequently reduces their initial population build up.
  • Soil solarization: Cover the beds with polythene sheet of 45 gauge (0.45 mm) thickness for three weeks before sowing for soil solarization which will help in reducing the soil-borne pests including weeds.

Planting


Common cultural practices:

  • Use resistant/tolerant planting material/seedlings
  • Follow proper plant spacing
  • Use healthy, certified and weed free planting material.
Nutrients
  • Application of nitrogen 30 g/tree of each year during September – October up to 10 years.
  • The young plants should be given 15-20 kg of well rotten FYM and the mature trees should be given 1 kg of Super Phosphate and 1-1.5kg of muriate of potash
  • The above fertilizers should be given in two split doses to mature, bearing tree, once during September-October and during April-May.
  • After setting of the fruits the plants needs to be irrigated after fertilizer application.
Weeds
  • Same as in pre planting stage
Resting stages of soil borne pathogens, pests
  • Same as in pre planting stage
Note: Apply Trichoderma viride/ harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens as seed/seedling/planting material, nursery treatment and soil application (if commercial products are used, check for label claim. However, biopesticides produced by farmers for own consumption in their fields, registration is not required)

Vegetative stage

Common cultural practices:

  • Collect and destroy crop debris
  • Provide irrigation at the critical stages of the crop
  • Avoid water logging
  • Avoid water stress during flowering stage
  • Follow judicious use of fertilizers
  • Enhance parasitic activity by avoiding chemical pesticide spray, when 1-2 larval parasitoids are observed in the crops field.

Common mechanical practices:

  • Collect and destroy disease infected and insect infested plant parts.
  • Collect and destroy eggs and early stage larvae
  • Handpick the older larvae during early stages
  • Hand pick the gregarious caterpillars and cocoons which are found on stem/branches and destroy them in kerosene mixed water.
  • Use yellow sticky traps @ 4-5 trap/acre
  • Use light trap @ 1/acre and operate between 6 pm and 10 pm
  • Install pheromone traps @ 4-5/acre for monitoring adult moths activity (replace the lures with fresh lures after every 2-3 weeks)
  • Erecting of bird perches @ 20/acre for encouraging predatory birds such as King crow, common mynah etc.
  • Set up bonfire during evening hours at 7-8 pm
  • Common biological practices:
  • Conserve natural enemies through ecological engineering
  • Augmentative release of natural enemies
Nutrient
  • As indicated during planting stage.
Weeds
  • Same as indicated during pre planting stage
Bark eating caterpillar
Cultural control:
  • Keep orchard clean by proper sanitation.
  • Detect early infestation by periodically looking out for drying young shoots.
  • Collect loose and damaged bark & destroy.
  • Kill larvae by inserting iron spike or wire into hole
Apical twig gall maker

Cultural control:

  • Adopt training and pruning to discourage overcrowding of branches.
  • Galled shoots should be pruned and destroyed along with the pest after harvest
Aphids

Cultural control:

  • Clipping off and destruction of affected leaf and shoot.
  • Collect and destroy alternate weed hosts.
  • Eract yellow pan traps @ 4-5 trap/acre
  • Biological control:
  • Scymnus, Chilomens sexmaculatus, Chrysoperla zastrowi sillemi and other coccinellids, Predatory mantids, green lace wings, ladybird beetles and parasitic wasps
Mealy Bug

Cultural control

  • Follow clean cultivation and maintenance of health and vigour of the tree.
  • Prune affected parts and destroy them at early stages of infestation.
  • Early detection of mealy bugs - presence of ants - indicator
  • Cutting of infested twigs and leaves and burying them

Biological control:

  • Field release of green lace wing Chrysoperla zastrowi sillemi
  • Several species of ladybird beetles such as Chilocorus sp. and Cryptolaemus montrouzieri are efficient predator.
Pomegranate butterfly

Cultural control:

  • Clean cultivation and maintenance of health and vigour of the tree should be followed.
  • Infested fruits should be identified, collected and destroyed to prevent further spread of infestation.

Mechanical control:

  • Remove weeds of compositae family
  • Detect early infestation by periodically looking for drying branches.

Biological control:

  • Release of Trichogramma chilonis @ 1.0 lakhs/ acre four times at 10 days interval.
White fly
Cultural control:
  • Clipping of and destruction of infested leaves.
  • Avoid water stress and water log conditions.
  • Avoid planting in low land areas.

Mechanical control:

  • Remove the puparia bearing leaves and immediately disposing by burning or burying to prevent emergence of adult white flies
  • Use yellow sticky traps.

Biological control:

  • Release parasitoids Encarsia sp, Eretmocerus sp.
  • Release predators Dicyphus hesperus (mirid bug), dragonfly, spider, robber fly, praying mantis, fire ants, coccinellids, lace wings, big eyed bugs (Geocoris spp.) etc
Leaf miner
Cultural control:
  • Avoid pruning live branches more than once a year, so that the cycles of flushing are uniform and short.
  • Do not apply nitrogen fertilizer at the times of the year when leaf miner populations are high and flush growth will be severely damaged..
  • Set up yellow pan water trap/sticky traps 15 cm above the canopy for monitoring and management of leaf minor @ 8-10 traps/acre.

Biological control:

  • Release natural enemies wasp like Pnigalio spp and Closterocerus spp.
Hairy caterpillars and Leaf roller
  • Cultural control:
Hand pick caterpillars and destroy the infest plant parts along with larva.
Rust

Cultural control:

  • Grow tolerant/resistant cultivars like Banarasi and Chakaiya.
  • Maintain proper plant distance and aeration by training and pruning.
  • Severely infected plant parts should be pruned and destroyed

Flowering and fruiting stages


Common cultural practices:

  • Same as in vegetative stage.

Common mechanical practices:

  • Same as in vegetative stage

Common biological practices:

  • Same as in vegetative stage
Nutrients
  • Same as indicated during planting stage.
Weeds
  • Same as indicated during pre planting stage
Apical twig gall maker
  • Same as indicated during vegetative stage
Mealy Bug
  • Same as indicated during vegetative stage
Pomegranate butterfly
  • Same as indicated during vegetative stage
Fruit sucking moths
Cultural control:
  • Collect and destroy the infested plant parts along with the larva.

Biological control:

  • Release or increase population of biocontrol agents like Charops obtusus Morley, Rhogas spp., Apanteles hyposidrae Wilkinson, Euplectrus maternus
Hairy caterpillars and Leaf roller
  • Same as indicated during vegetative stage
Rust
  • Same as indicated during vegetative stage
Fruit rot

Cultural control:

  • Prune and destroy pruned cuttings and debris by burning, burying, or ploughing them into the soil.
  • Avoid injury to fruits.

Post harvest

Pest & diseases

Mechanical control:

  • Remove and destroy all the affected fruits to reduce, the incidence of Anar butterfly.

Source: NIPHM; Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine & Storage



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