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Sesame: Diseases and Symptoms

Phyllody

Disease symptoms
  • Phyllody imgAll floral parts are transformed into green leafy structures followed by abundant vein clearing in different flower parts.
  • In severe infection, the entire inflorescences is replaced by short twisted leaves closely arranged on a stem with short internodes, abundant abnormal branches bend down.
  • Finally, plants look like witches broom.
  • If capsules are formed on lower portion of plant they do not yield quality seeds
Transmission and favourable conditions
  • The disease is transmitted through jassids and the phytoplasma survives in leaf hopper throughout its life.

Dry root rot

Disease symptoms
  • Dryrootrot imgThe fungus attacks young seedling, their stems become water soaked soft and incapable of supporting the seedling which falls over and dies.
  • On older seedlings elongated brownish black lesions appear which increase in length and width girdling the stem and plant dies.

Survival and spread - The pathogen survives in seed and soil.

Favourable conditions - High soil temperatures and moisture stress conditions favour the development of the pathogen.

Phytophthora blight

Disease symptoms

Disease can occur at all stages of the plant.

  • Initial symptom is water soaked spots on leaves and stems.
  • The spots are chestnut brown in the beginning later turn to black.
  • Premature leaf fall occurs.
  • In humid weather, severity of disease increases, main root is affected, diseased plants are easily pulled out and produce shriveled seeds and gives blighted appearance.
Survival and spread
  • The pathogen survives in soil
Favourable conditions
  • High soil moisture favours the development of the pathogen.
  • The disease is severe in the area of heavy soil with high rainfall

Alternaria blight

Disease symptoms:
  • The pathogen attacks all parts of the plant at all stages.
  • Small, dark brown water soaked, round to irregular lesions, with concentric rings, 1-8 mm in diameter appear on the leaves and under excessive atmospheric and soil humidity the spot increases in size and number.
  • The lesions may also appear on the midrib and veins of the leaves.
  • Milder attacks cause only defoliation, in severe cases the plant may die.
Transmission and favourable conditions
  • The pathogen is seed borne.
  • Temperature of 20-30o C and high humid conditions favour the disease.

IPM for Sesame

To know the IPM practices for Sesame, click here.

Source: NIPHM and Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine & Storage



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