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Sunflower-Crop Stage Wise IPM

ManagementActivity

Pre-sowing

Common cultural practices:

  • Deep ploughing during summer exposes the pests and weeds to high temperature and reduces their load present in the soil.
  • Crop rotation of 3-4 years reduces soil borne diseases
  • Adopt timely sowing should be done.
  • Keeping field bunds and crop free of weeds to avoid high pest load as it favours the pest build up on the main crop.
Nutrients
  • Incorporate 3-4 t/acre of well decomposed FYM or compost or crop residues treated with Trichoderma 2-3 week prior to sowing.
  • Do not leave FYM or compost exposed to sunlight as nutrients may be lost.
  • Apply adequate and balanced nutrients along with organics as per soil test basis.
Weeds
  • At the time of field preparation, adopt stale seed bed technique i.e. pre sowing irrigation followed by shallow tillage to minimize the weeds menace in field. Adopt integrated weed management to reduce weed competition.
Soil borne diseases (Downy mildew, Charcoal rot, Sclerotium wilt, Alternaria leaf spot, Rust) and Sunflower necrosis virus

Cultural control:

  • Uproot and burn infected plants early enough to avoid spread of the disease.
  • Effective weed control.
  • Maintain good fertility levels.
  • Place the seeds at a depth of 3 cm along the furrows in which the fertilizer mixture is placed and cover with soil. Put two seeds per hole at the rate of 1.6-2.8Kg/acre based on irrigated and rainfed land.
Thrips

Cultural control:

  • Destroying queen by digging it out from the termitorium in red soil areas.
  • Field sanitation and use of fully decomposed FYM mixed with wood ash will reduce termite activity

Sowing/Seedling

Common cultural practices:
  • Application of balanced dose of NPK fertilizers
  • Use healthy, clean, quality, certified and weed free seeds.
  • Timely sowing with recommended spacing
  • Use tolerant/resistant varieties
  • Sow trap crops like marigold at@50 plants/acre
Common mechanical practices:
  • Collection and destruction of plant debris
  • Use of pheromone traps @4-5 traps/acre
  • Set up of light traps @1trap/acre
  • Set up yellow sticky traps @4-5traps/acre coated with grease/sticky oily materials.
  • Collect and destroy egg masses, larvae and damaged leaves in early stage
Nutrient management
  • For efficient use of applied fertilizers, adopt fertilizer cum seed drill.
  • Seed treatment should be done with Azotobactor /Azospirillum and PSB @ 250 g /acre and VAM inoculum @ 1Kg /acre as soil application.
  • Fertilizers should be applied on soil test basis. Generally, it is recommended to apply NPK @ 25, 20 and 16 Kg /acre.  Apply 50% of N and full dose of P &K preferably in the form of band placement at the time of sowing.
  • Apply Sulphur @10-15 Kg/ acre through gypsum or Single Super Phosphate (SSP).
  • Prefer SSP as source of Phosphorous as it also supply Sulphur to the crop.
  • In boron deficient soils, apply boron @ 400 g / acre (4.5 Kg borax per acre) in alternate years.
  • In saline soils, sow sunflower on ridges and apply additional N @ 8 Kg/ acre.
  • Spray boron @0.2% as directed spray to capitulum at ray floret 28 opening stage.
Weed management

Cultural control:

  • Sowing sunflower seeds on ridges (6-8 cm height), in cutworm endemic areas

Biological control:

  • Release of Trichogramma chilonus@ 20000/acre.
Jassids

Cultural control:

  • Close spacing reduces pest infestation particularly if the rainfall is heavy.
  • Apply adequate amount of nitrogen
  • Mixed cropping of sunflower with cotton
  • Intercropping sunflower with groundnut in the ratio(1:4)

Mechanical control:

  • See the common mechanical practices

Biological control:

  • Conserve coccinellids like Brumus suturalis, Chilochorus nigritus, Coccinella septumpunctata, Menochllus sexmaculata, Scemnus nubillus
  • Predatory lygaeid Geocoris tricolor and Anthocoris sp.,
  • Several mantids like Eumantissa giglio, Cariagrion coromandeliorum, Ichneura sp., Dolichopus sp. and Therevia sp.
  • Release predators viz., Chrysoperla zastrowi sillemi

Chemical control:

  • Seed treatment with imidacloprid 48% FS @ 5-9ml/Kg seed and imidacloprid 70% WS @ 7ml/ Kg seed.
  • Spray imidacloprid 17.8% SL @40ml/acre diluted in 200 lit of water
Thrips
  • As mentioned above in the pre-sowing stage.
White fly

Cultural control:

  • Intercropping sunflower with groundnut in the ratio of 1:4

Mechanical control:

  • Use of synthetic pyretheroids decreases the intensity of Whitefly.

Biological control:

  • Spray neem product (5% Neem oil before egg laying) or 5 Kg/acre neem kernel extract with any sticky material

Chemical control:

  • Seed treatment with imidacloprid 48% FS@5-9ml/Kg seed and imidacloprid 70% WS 7ml/ Kg seed.
  • Spraying of imidacloprid 17.8% SL @ 40ml/acre diluted in 200 l of water. or Spraying of malathion 50% EC @400 ml/acre diluted in 200- 400 l of water.
Tobacco caterpillar

Cultural control:

  • Intercropping sunflower with pigeonpea

Mechanical control:

  • See the common mechanical practices

Biological control:

  • Conserve natural enemies such as the egg parasitoid, Trichogramma evanescens minutum, larval parasitoids, Aponteles prodeniae, Cotesia sp., Peribaea sp. predatory stink bug, Cantheconidia furcellata and pupal parasitoids, Tetrastichus ayyari, Metopius sp. and Trichospilus pupivora are important.
  • Several general predators like spiders, chrysoperla, predatory bugs, insectivorous birds etc
  • Spray 5% neem seed kernel extract @5Kg/acre preferably in the evening.
  • Spray SLNPV @ 100LE/acre for parasitizing the larvae. (SLNPV @ 100 LE/acre with 0.2% kernel is more effective)
  • Apply Bacilus thuringiensis and Radius cereus for the management of this pest in the field
  • Spray Cierodedrum inerme dust (25%) and plant extracts (10%)
Chemical control:
  • Spray dichlorvos 76% EC @ 250ml/acre diluted in 200- 400 l of water.
Sunflower necrosis disease

Cultural control:

  • Clean cultivation by removing the weeds specially Parthenium, Cammelina etc both inside and neighbouring plots
  • Follow optimum plant population in the field
  • Rouging of infected plants before flowering. Grow 3-5 rows of sorghum as border crop.
Downy mildew

Cultural control:

  • Use downy mildew resistant hybrids LSH-1 and LSH-3 for endemic pockets of Maharashtra. Most of the recently released hybrids viz., BSH-1, KBSH-1, MSFH-17, DSH-1, SPIC-105 are resistant to downy mildew.
  • Remove volunteer sunflower plants, Parthenium weed around around the field and clean cultivation.
  • Shollow sowing (3 cm) is desirable to avoid downy mildew.
  • Pre sowing irrigation followed by one irrigation at 10 or more days after sowing reduces disease
  • Rouging of mildew infected seedlings during thinning, removal and destruction of infected plants.
  • Crop rotation in sunflower with groundnut/ sorghum/ pigeonpea for six-years.

Chemical control:

  • Seed treatment with metalaxyl-M 31.8% ES & metalaxyl 35% WS @ 2g/Kg and 6g/Kg seed has been found to give effective control.
Charcoal rot

Cultural control:

  • Avoid moisture stress and high temperature
Alternaria leaf spot

Cultural control:

  • Early planting during kharif escapes from the leaf spot
  • Occurrence and severity of the disease depend on the season and planting dates.
  • Mid-September planting of sunflower remains free from most of the major diseases including Alternaria.
  • Intercropping of sunflower with groundnut in the ratio of 6:2 reduces leaf spot.
  • Spacing of 60 x 30cm or 45 x 30cm is optimum in reducing the buildup of leaf spot
Sclerotium wilt

Cultural control:

  • Avoid moisture stress.
Sclerotinia wilt and rot

Cultural control:

  • Soil amendment with farm yard manure @ 5 tonnes/acre
  • Avoid moisture stress during high summer and water logging conditions

Biological control:

  • Seed treatment with Trichoderma. viride 6g/Kg seed.
  • Addition of Trichoderma harzianum in soil at 10g/kg and soil amendments like castor cake, neem cake, oat straw reduces  disease incidence
Note: Apply Trichoderma viride/harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens for treatment of seeds/seedlings/planting materials in the nurseries and field application (if commercial products are used, check for label claim. However, biopesticides produced by farmers for own consumption in their fields, registration is not required).

Vegetative stage

Common cultural practices:

  • Avoid water stagnation in the field/ moisture stress
  • Removal and destruction of crop residues, volunteer sunflower plants reduce the disease severity
  • Maintain one seedling per hill by thinning at 10-15 days after germination.

Common mechanical practices:

  • Optimum plant population has to be maintained
  • Apart from hand-pick and destruction of young larvae of Agrotis spp . feeding gregariously on foliage.
  • Set up light trap @1 trap/acre to attract and kill adults.
  • Set up pheromone traps @4-5 traps/acre
  • Install bird perches @ 20/acre
Nutrient
  • In dry lands, top dress of rest of nitrogen around 30 days after sowing depending on rainfall and soil moisture preferably at the time of interculture.
  • For the irrigated crop, apply remaining nitrogen in two equal splits, first at 30 days after sowing and second at 30 days thereafter.
  • Depending on specific deficiencies and based on soil test values, take up micronutrient correction.
Weed
  • Very shallow tillage after one week of sowing with spike tooth harrow/coil spring harrow/rotary hoe before germination of sunflower seeds.
  • Two hoeing or hand tool weeding at 20-25 days and 35-40 days after sowing .
  • Mulches like straw hay, black polyethylene etc. can be used in between the rows to suppress the weed growth .provided intercrops not grown.
Jassids
  • As mentioned above in the sowing stage.
Thrips
  • As mentioned above in the pre-sowing stage.
Tobacco caterpillar

Cultural control:

  • Hand collection and destruction of egg masses and skeletonized leaves along with first and second instar gregarious larvae.
  • As mentioned above in the seedling stage.
Green semilooper

Mechanical control:

  • See the common mechanical practices

Biological control:

  • Conserve natural enemies such as egg parasitoids like Trichogramma spp, larval parasitoids like Cotesia spp, Apanteles ruficrus, A.africanus, Euplecturs ceylonensis, Campoletis chloridae, Exorista xanthaspis, Copidosoma ftoridanum, Disophrys lurea and Enicospilus sp.
  • General predators like lady bird beetles, chrysoperla, mantids and spiders
  • A few birds also predate such as ashy wren warbler, tailor bird, green leaf warbler black drongo and house sparrow

Chemical control:

  • Spraying of dichlorvos 76% EC @250ml/acre diluted in 200- 400 l of water.
Cabbage semilooper

Biological control:

  • Spray 5% neem seed and kernel extract @5Kg/acre preferably in the evening.
Bihar hairy caterpillar

Cultural control

  • Use of well rotten manures.
  • Intercropping with pigeon pea at a row ratio of 2:1 is effective in reducing the insect attack.
  • Hand collection and destruction of egg masses and skeletonized leaves along with first and second instar gregarious larvae.

Biological control:

  • Conserve parasite such as Champs obtusus and Meteorus clichomerictis
  • Spray 5% neem seed kernel extract @ 5Kg/acre preferably in the evening.

Chemical control:

  • Spray cypermethrin 10% EC @260-300ml/acre diluted in 200 – 260 l of water.
Capitulum borer

Cultural control:

  • Sow 3- 4 lines of maize around the sunflower crop to monitor the moth.
  • Intercropping with pigeonpea, groundnut, finger millet and soybean.

Mechanical control:

  • See the common mechanical practices

Biological control:

  • Release predators like Coccinellids, Chrysoperla zastrowi sillemi @ 1 larva/ head, Menochilus sexmaculata
  • Release parasitoides like Trichogramma spp. @ (20,000/acre), Bracon spp., Campoletis spp.
  • Spray HaNPV 100 LE + Bt @0.2Kg/acre for effective control.
  • Spray HaNPV 100 LE/acre + 0.4 Kg Jaggery + 80ml Sandovit (or) Teepal; mixing and spray in the evening hours only.
  • Spray 5% neem oil or 5% neem seed kernel extract @5Kg/acre
  • Natural enemies as well as honey bees.
  • Spray Clerodendrum inerme dust (25%) and plant extract (10%)
White fly
  • As mentioned above in the sowing stage.
Downy mildew
  • As mentioned above in the sowing stage
Alternaria leaf spot
  • As mentioned above in the sowing stage
Rust

Cultural control:

  • Avoid high nitrogen rates and high plant populations.
Sunflower Necrosis
  • As mentioned above in the sowing stage
Sclerotinia wilt and rot
  • As mentioned above in the sowing stage
Charcoal rot
  • As mentioned above in the sowing stage
Powdery mildew

Cultural control:

  • Wild species of sunflower i.e., Hellanthus debilis, H.californicus, H. ciliaris, H.decapetalus L., H.lacinatus and H. rigidus show resistance to powdery mildew

Mechanical control:

  • See the common mechanical practices

Flowering/Seed formation stage

Nutrient Management
  • Spray of boron (0.2%) to capitulum at ray floret opening stage. Incorporate crop residues in soil immediately after harvest.
Weed management
  • Remove left over weeds to prevent weed seed spread in field.
Tobacco caterpillar
  • As mentioned above in the sowing stage.
Bihar hairy caterpillar
  • As mentioned above in the vegetative stage
Capitulum/H ead borer
  • As mentioned above in the vegetative stage
Alternaria leaf spot
  • As mentioned above in the sowing stage
Rust
  • As mentioned above in the vegetative stage
Head rot

Cultural control:

  • Avoid injury to flower head due to mechanical operations
Birds

Cultural control:

  • Grow sunflower in large continuous area to minimise localised damage.

Mechanical control:

  • Apart from employing labour for bird scaring, use polypropelene metallic shining reflective bird scaring ribbon (Agni strip) with red/yellow on one side and silver white on other side of 10-15 meter length at 4 to 8 meters distance (20-24/acre)

Storage

Store grain insect pests and seed mycoflora
  • Moisture content of seeds should not exceed 6.5% and relative humidity of storage containers should not exceed 70% to minimise losses due to insect pests and fungi during storage.

Note: The pesticide dosages and spray fluid volumes are based on high volume spray.



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