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Small cardamom: Crop Stage-wise IPM

Small cardamom: Crop Stage-wise IPM

Management Activity

Pre-sowing*


Common cultural practices:
• Deep summer ploughing of fi elds to control resting stages of insect pests.
• Follow crop rotation with non-host crops
• Field sanitation, rogueing
• Destroy the alternate host plants
• Sow the ecological engineering plants
• Sow/plant sorghum/maize/bajra in 4 rows all around cumin crop as a guard/barrier crop
• Removal and destruction of alternate host weeds
Soil borne pathogens nematodes and resting stages of insects Cultural control:
• Practice green manuring and intercropping with redgram for the control of root rot.
Biological control:
• Apply neem cake @ 100 Kg/acre at the time of transplanting for reducing capsule borer damage

Seedling/nursery*


Common cultural practices:
• Grow resistant/tolerant varieties
• Use healthy, certifi ed and weed seed free seeds/suckers/planting material.
• Destruction of infested plants
• Do not use the same site repeatedly for raising the seedlings
• Raise nurseries away from main plantations to reduce possibilities of infestation and re infestation from the nearby infested plantations.
• Provide adequate drainage facilities.
I. Primary nursery • Seed treatment with acid or similar chemicals improves germination. Acid scarifi cation with 25 per cent nitric acid for 10 minutes to break the seed coat will enhance
germination.
• Fumigate the beds with 2% formalin (10 liters per bed) 10 days before sowing
• After extraction of seeds wash through water to avoiding mucilage and mix with wood
ash for shade drying.
• Bed size should be 6 m in length, 1 m width and 20 cm height after timely sowing and planting.
• 30-50 g seeds should be recommended per bed.
• Select the suckers of high yielding varieties suiting to the location.
• Select the virus free planting material, vegetative propagation through suckers is the
best method.
Weeds • Use vegetative mulches to avoid weed growth in nursery.
• Weeds should be removed manually as and when required
II. Secondary nursery • Prepare beds as in primary nursery
• Fumigate the beds with 2% formalin (10 l per bed) 10 days before sowing
• Mixing of well decomposed cattle manure and wood ash with the top layer of the soil
will help the seedlings to establish well and to grow vigorously
• Shade pandals should be provided before transplanting.
• Mulching the bed with dry leaves will help to conserve soil moisture.
• Regular watering during dry months, weeding, application of fertilizers, control of pests
and diseases.
Weeds • Mulching should be done to check the growth of weeds.
• Weeds should be removed by using hand tools/hoeing during May, September and
December months.
Rhizome weevil** Cultural control:
• Provide suffi cient organic manures to encourage better vegetative growth.
Shoot fly** Cultural control:
• Provide suffi cient shade to the plants.
Shoot borer Cultural control:
• Rogueing and destruction of infested tillers during September-October
Root-knot nematode Cultural control:
• Nursery should be raised in nematode free sites or fumigated or solarized beds.
• The roots should be pruned prior to distribution or transplanting.
• Avoiding planting of alternate hosts such as banana, colocasia and jackfruit
Biological control:
• Soil application of neem cake @ 500 g/plant.
Damping off or seedling rot Cultural control:
• In the primary nursery, practice thin sowing for avoiding overcrowding of seedlings.
Chemical control:
• Spray/drench the soil with fosetyl-AL 80% WP @ 900-1200 g in 300-400 l of water/acre
Primary nursery leaf spot Cultural control:
• Raise nursery in fertile soil.
• Avoid direct sunlight on nursery beds. Use agro shade net.
• Early sowing of seeds in August-September will ensure mature seedlings which are less prone to diseases during south west monsoon.
Chemical control:
• Spray/drench the soil after germination of seedlings with copper oxy-chloride @ 1 g in
300-400 l of water/acre
Secondary nursery leaf spot**/ Cercospora leaf spot Cultural control:
• Cardamom seeds should be sown in the month of August – September, to ensure suffi cient growth of seedlings, so that seedlings develop suffi cient tolerance to the disease.
Chemical control:
• Spray/drench the soil with copper oxy-chloride 50% WP @ 1 Kg in 300-400 l of water/acre
‘Katte’ or mosaic or marble disease Cultural control:
• Fill the gaps with healthy disease free materials.

Plantation stage


Common cultural practices:
• Collect and destroy crop debris.
• Avoid water logging.
• Regulate shade in thickly shaded areas.
• Avoid water stress during fl owering stage.
• Enhance parasitic activity by avoiding chemical spray, when 1-2 larval parasitoids are
observed.
• Remove and destroy collateral/alternate hosts such as castor, ginger, turmeric in the
immediate vicinity.
• Maintain optimum plant density.
• Ensure adequate shade of 65-70% in endemic areas and irrigate the crop before
attaining critical period.
• Fill gaps with healthy disease free materials.
• Mulching the plant basins with green leaves and other organic materials during summer
months conserves and maintains the population of native benefi cial microfl ora.

Common mechanical practices:
• Collect and destroy disease infected and insect infested plant parts.
• Collection and destruction of eggs and early stage larvae.
• Handpick the older larvae during early stages of crop.
• The infested shoots may be collected and destroyed.
• Handpick the gregarious caterpillars and the cocoons which are found on stem and
destroy them in kerosene mixed water.
• Use yellow sticky traps @ 4-5 trap/acre.
• Use light trap @ 1/acre and operate between 6 pm and 10 pm.
• Install pheromone traps @ 4-5/acre for monitoring adult moths activity (replace the lures
with fresh lures after every 2-3 weeks).
• Encouragement of golden backed woodpecker and crow-pheasant in the plantation
and erect of bird perches @ 20/acre to attract birds of economic importance in biological
control.
Common biological practices:
• Conserve natural enemies through ecological engineering.
• Augmentative release of natural enemies.
Nutrients • Application of organic manures such as FYM, cow dung or compost @ 5 Kg/plant or neem cake @ 1-2 Kg / plant may be done during June-July.
• The present recommendation of nutrients for cardamom is N:P2O5:K2O @ 30:30:60 Kg/
acre.
• The fertilizers may be applied in two split doses, before and after the southwest monsoon, in a circular band of 20 cm wide and 30-40 cm away from the base of the clumps, and mixed with soil.
Weeds • Three rounds of hand tool weeding during May, September and December/January
• Slash weeding by use of power mower in the inter row space.
• Use of spade for weeding is to be avoided as it will loosen the soil and cause soil erosion.
• The weeded materials may be used for mulching.
Cardamom thrips • Follow the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
Cultural control:
• Removal of dry drooping leaves as well as dry leaf sheath (trashing) during January-
February.
• Destruction of collateral host plants.
• Detrashing and weeding reduce thrips infestation.
Biological control:
• Release Chrysoperla zastrowi sillemi @ 2 larvae/plant in early stage of the plant and 4
larvae/plant in later stage
Chemical control:
• Spray quinalphos 25% EC @ 240-480 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre or phenthoate 50% EC @ 200 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre or diafenthiuron 50% WP @ 320 g in 400 l of water/ acre or monocrotophos 36% SL @ 374.8 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre
Shoot borer • Follow the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
Cultural control:
• Castor seeds 0.4-0.8 Kg/acre may be sown as trap crop in open areas/ boundary.
• Rogueing and destruction of infested tillers during September-October.
Mechanical control:
• Castor infl orescence with capsules infested by shoots and capsule may be collected and destroyed.
• Use of pheromones in the monitoring of the pest and therefore correct timing of
application of biorationals shall be recommended.
Biological control:
• Application of Bacillus thuringiensis when early-instar larvae are found in capsule or
panicle or unopened lead buds i.e., within 20 days of adult moth emergence.
Early capsule borer • Follow the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
Mechanical control:
• Clipping the infl orescence/fl ower parts of alternate hosts viz., Alpinia speciosa, A.mutica, Amomum ghaticum, A. pterocarpum, Curcuma heilyherrensis, Hedydium ceranarium during off season (December to May).
Chemical control:
• Diafenthiuron 50% WP @ 320 g in 400 l of water/acre
White grub/root grub • Follow the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
Cultural control:
• Avoid planting of jack, mango, fi g etc. as shade trees as these trees are alternate hosts of the pest.
• Mulching of plant base with leaves of wild Helianthus sp. to prevent egg laying of adult
beetles.
• Earthing up and detrashing.
• Irrigation @15–20 l per plant reduces root grub population.
Mechanical control:
• Set up light trap @ 1/acre.
Biological control:
• Local strain of EPN (Heterorhabditis indica) application @ 1,00,000 nematodes (IJS) / plant
Whitefly** • Follow the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
Biological control:
• Release Chrysoperla zastrowi sillemi @ 2 larvae/plant in early stage of the plant and 4
larvae/plant in later stage.
• Spraying of neem oil @ 50 ml with soap solution in 500 ml in 100 l of water (lower
surface of leaf)
Hairy caterpillars** • Follow the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
Shoot fly** • Follow the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
Lacewing bug** • Follow the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
Midrib caterpillar** • Follow the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
Cultural control
• Prune dried leaves in January end (before fi rst spray), and also in September.
Cardamom aphid** • Follow the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
Cultural control:
• Remove partly dried and decayed pseudostems which harbour the colonies of aphids to
reduce aphid population.
Red spider mite** • Follow the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
‘Katte’ or mosaic or marble disease • Follow the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
Capsule rot/ Azhukal disease • Follow the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
Biological control:
• Trichoderma harzianum 0.50% WS @ 100 g/plant (soil treatment): Apply 100 g product/
plant along with neem cake (0.5 Kg/plant) and 5 Kg FYM/plant
Chemical control:
• Spray/drench the soil with fosetyl-AL 80% WP @ 900-1200 g in 300-400 l of water/acre
Clump rot or rhizome rot • Follow the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
Chemical control:
• Spray/drench the soil with copper oxy-chloride 50% WP @ 1 Kg in 300-400 l of water/acre
Leaf spot** and leaf rust** • Follow the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
Chemical control:
• Spray/drench the soil after germination of seedlings with copper oxy chloride 50% WP @
1 Kg in 300-400 l of water/acre
Root tip rot/ pseudostem rot/ stem lodging • Follow the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
Chlorotic streak disease, Banana bract mosaic virus** • Follow the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
Note: The pesticide dosages and spray fluid volumes are based on high volume sprayer.
* Apply Trichoderma viride/harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens as seed/seedling/planting material, nursery treatment and soil application (if commercial products are used, check for label claim. However, biopesticides produced by farmers for own consumption in their fields, registration is not required).
** Pests of regional significance

Source: NIPHM and Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine & Storage



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