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Callicarpa macrophylla

Plant profile:

Family Verbenaceae
Ayurvedic name Priyangu, Priyaka
Unani name Habb-ul-Mihlb
Hindi name Dahiya
English name Perfumed Cherry
Trade name Dahiya & Sumali
Parts used Leaves, fruits and roots

Callicarpa macrophylla

Callicarpa macrophylla

Morphological Characteristics

  • It is an erect bushy shrub, 2.0-2.5 m tall, branches virgate, usually shaggy as well as with tomentose tips.
  • The leaves are 15-25 cm long and 5.0-7.0 cm broad, ovatelanceolate, acuminate, base cuneate or rounded.
  • The upper surface of leaf is wrinkled, glabrate when mature, white tomentose beneath with compound stellate hairs.
  • The main lateral nerves are 12-16 pairs. Petiole is 0.5-1.2 cm long.

Floral Characteristics

  • Flowers appear in July-November are small, 0.5 cm long, pink in colour and crowded in axillary peduncled globose cymes, solitary, pedunculate or sessile.
  • Flowers are bisexual, actinomorphic and fragrant.
  • Calyx 4 or rarely 5 toothed, pubescent, corolla infundibular, 4 or rarely 5 lobed.
  • Stamens  are 4, exserted, anthers oblong 2 loculed, dorsifixed.
  • Ovary is superior, 4 lobed, 4 loculed, 1 ovule in each locule, style short, stigma 2 lobed.
  • Fruit is drupe and white containing one seeded nutlets.

Distribution

  • The plant is distributed throughout NorthEastern India upto 1000 m msl

Climate and Soil

  • The plant grows in dry tropical forests including shaded places of ravines and scrub forests.

Propagation Material

  • The planting material is seed.

Agro-technique

Nursery Technique

Raising Propagules :

  • At the onset of monsoon from JuneJuly, seeds are sown at the rate of 5-10 kg/ha.
  • Germination is approximately 50%. Propagules are also raised through stem-cuttings.
  • Row to row distance should be of 50 cm and plant to plant is 25 cm.
  • Seeds germinate after 30-45 days and stem cuttings sprout after 8-10 days.

Planting in the Field

  1. Land Preparation and Manure
    Application :
    The field should be ploughed two or three times to have the fine tilth to facilitate planting and sprouting of stem cuttings. FYM @ 20-25 t/ha is mixed with the soil. NPK at 40:20:10 kg/ha is given as basal dressing and equal quantity as a top dressing after establishment of plant population.
  2. Intercropping : Crop can be raised as sole crop for commercial purpose and mixed crop with vegetable and other medicinal plants i.e. rosemary, garden sage etc.
  3. Intercultural Operations : It is done after 30-45 days and second at 60-80 days.
  4. Irrigation : It is a rainfed crop.
  5. Weed Control : The initial growth of the crop may be hampered because of increased infestation of weeds. Therefore, weeding and hoeing should be done whenever needed.
  6. Disease and Pest Control: No visible symptoms of any pest and diseases have been recorded.

Harvest Management

  1. Crop Maturity and Harvesting : Crop matures after 10 months. The mature fruits are plucked during second year in November-December. The yield increases subsiquently  compared to first year.
  2. Post-harvest Management : After plucking of fruits, these are dried in shade and kept in air tight vessels.
  3. Chemical Constituents : Leaves contain ursolic acid, oleanolic acid; bark contains methyl betulinate and baurenol. Heart wood contains oleanolic acid and B-sitosterol.
  4. Yield : One hectare plantation gives yield of dried-fruits 630 kg and 1660-1680 kg of dry roots.

Therapeutic Uses

  • In Ayurvedic literature, Priyangu is described as cooling, refrigerant, deodorant and antipyretic, tones up the digestive system, checks excessive perspiration, disinfects intestines, controls diarrhoea and allays burning sensation during fevers.
  • Leaves are applied in rheumatic joints.
  • Oil from root is aromatic.

Source :Agro-techniques of Selected Medicinal Plants



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