||Viavidang,Bai bidang Krimighna, Chitramandula, Valle
- It is a large scandant shrub with long branches, slender, flexible, terete and long internodes.
- The bark is studded with lenticels.
- Leaves are coriacous, 5X2-4 cm long, elliptic or ellipticlanceolate, shortly and obtusely acuminate, entire, glabrous on both sides, shining above, pales and somewhat silvery beneath, base rounded or acute and main nerves numerous.
- Petioles are more or less margined and glabrous.
- Flowers are small, greenish-yellow, numerous in lax panicled racemes.
- Calyx is minute, sepals connate, broadly triangular, ovate and ciliate.
- Petals are 5 and free and stamens are 5, but shorter than the petals.
- Flowering time is February.
- Fruits are 2.4-4.0 mm in diameter and globular with warty surface, smooth, succulent.
- The colour of fruit is dull black and rarely dull red.
The plant is found in moist and shady places upto an altitude of 1500 meter.
Climate and Soil
- Tropical and subtropical climate is required for the cultivation of this crop.
- Medium black well drained soils are best suited for the crop.
- The optimum temperature required for the crop is 18ºC-35ºC, with annual precipitation of 700 to 1500 mm.
E. ribes is propagated through seeds.
- Planting in the Field Land Preparation and Fertilizer Application: Crop is raised through direct sowing of seeds in the field during June-July. The field is well ploughed followed by harrowing to bring the soils to a fine tilth and free from weeds. The application of organic manure (FYM) at the rate of 5-10 t/ha is recommended.
- Transplanting and Optimum Spacing: Seeds are sown directly in the field at optimum spacing of 1.0 X1.0 meter.
- Inter cultural Operations: The inter culture operations like weeding, protective irrigation, support or staking are to be done periodically as and when required.
- Disease and Pest Control: No major disease and pest is noted. However, in case of severe infestation bio-control measures are to be adopted.
- Crop Maturity and Harvesting: The crop matures after 5-6 months of its sowing and the fruiting starts in October-November, when these are plucked and stored after shade drying.
- Chemical Constituents: Seeds of Embelia ribes contain embelin 2.5–3.1%; quercitol 1.0%; fatty ingredients 5.3% and alkaloid schristembine, a resinoid, tannins and minute quantity of volatile oils.
- Yield : The crop yield is 190-200 kg seeds per hectare.
Source: Agro-techniques of selected medicinal plants
- The fruits of Embelia ribes known in commerce as Baibidang are recommended for relieving headache, rhinitis, haemorrhage, epilepsy and insomnia.
- The decoction of dried fruits is used for fever and for chest and skin disease.
- Paste is applied for skin infection.
- The drug also exhibits significant anti-fertility, antipyretic and antibacterial activity.
- The fruit powder, when taken with milk, followed by a purgative has been one of the ancient remedies to get rid of tapeworms.
- An infusion of the roots is given in the treatment of cough and diarrhoea.
- Fruits show antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.
- Embelin, which is one of the active principles of the drug, is reported to possess a property of colouring silk and woolen fabrics.
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