||Mundi, Mahamundi, Hapusa
||East Indian Globe Thistle
Plant of Sphaeranthus indicus
- It is an aromatic annual spreading herb with branches, 30cm to 60cm tall.
- Stems and branches have toothed wings, more or less covered with glandular hairs.
- Leaves are sessile, decurrent, obovate–oblong, glandular, dentate and narrowed at the base.
- Flowers are in compound heads, globose, ovoid in shape, ebracteate, borne on solitary glandular peduncles with toothed wings.
- Flowers are purple in colour. Involucre of bracts is linear in shape, acuminate apex, pubescent and ciliate near the ends.
- Fruit is achenes are glabrous and stalked.
- Plant is found throughout India, at an altitude of 1500 m msl.
Climate and Soil
- It grows as a weed in paddy fields and thrives well after harvest of paddy over medium clayey soils.
- Plant is propagated by seeds.
- Raising Propagules : Seed are sown in August in well prepared nursery beds. It takes about 10-12 days for germination. Seedlings are ready within one month attaining the height of 5.0 - 6.0 cm. It is then ready for field planting.
Planting in the Field
- Land Preparation and Manure Application : The field is ploughed, harrowed and planked to have a fine tilth. About 5-10 t of FYM along with N:P:K 20:30:30 kg/ha is mixed with soil before transplanting seedlings at a distance of 30cm X 15cm. Irrigation is given immediately. Rest of Nitrogen is given at 30 and 70 days after planting.
- Intercropping System : It can be grown as intercrop in paddy fields.
- Interculture and Maintenance Practices : Two weeding and hoeing are given at 20 and 45 days after planting.
- Irrigation Practices : About 4 to 5 irrigation at an interval of 15 days is required after monsoon rain is over.
- Disease and Pest Control : Leaf eating caterpillar has been observed and can be controlled through bio-pesticide. Harvest Management
- Crop Maturity and Harvesting : Flowering starts in November and continues upto March. Seed can be collected from March to April.
- Post-harvest Management : Plant should be dried in shade.
- Chemical Constituents : It has an essential oil, containing methyl chavicol, α-ionon,e, dcadinene, p-methoxycinnamadehyde as major constituents and a-terpinene, citral, geraniol, geranyl acetate, βionone, shaerene, indicusene and sphaeranthol are minor constituents. Leaves contain some alkaloids.
- Yield: Yield of dry herbage is around 10001200 kg/ha.
- The whole plant is used for formulation of medicine. It is pungent, bitter and stomachic and stimulant.
- It is a remedy for glandular swelling in the neck, urethral discharge and jaundice.
- The juice of plant is styptic and useful in liver and gastric disorder.
- A decoction of the root is used for chest pain, cough and bowel complaints.
- Bark powder mixed with whey is useful in piles.
- Leaf juice boiled with milk and sugar candy used for cough.
Source : Agro-techniques of Selected Medicinal Plants
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