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High Yielding Hybrids and Varieties of Castor (Ricinus communis L.)

Introduction

Castor (Ricinus communis L.) is a non-edible oilseed crop, belonging to Euphorbiaceae family and takes about atleast 30 and 75 days for fifty percent flowering and maturity of primary raceme, respectively and 5 to 10 months duration for remunerative seed yield. Oil extracted from castor beans has been used over centuries as medicine and lubricants, for hair dressing and as a laxative. In the recent past castor oil and its derivatives have been used in the manufacturing of about 250 industrial products ranging from hydraulic oil, jet engines, in soap, varnish and paint, nylon threads industries etc. Castor oil and its derivatives like hydroxystearic acid, dehydrogenated castor oil etc. are mainly exported (5.5 to 6.5 lakh tonnes worth of 4000-6000 crores) to the U.S.A., European Common Market and Japan. 

Since last 5 decades, fifteen high yielding varieties like Aruna, TMV-5, 48-1, DCS-9, GC-3, DCS-107 etc., and 22 hybrids have been released for cultivation by AICRP-Castor system of public sector in India.   The research efforts initiated since 70’s resulted in the development of wilt and leafhopper resistant hybrids. As of now, more than 95% of the total castor cultivated area is under hybrids. During 2019-20, castor was cultivated in an area of 9.70 lakh hectares with a production of 19.50 lakh tonnes and productivity of 2010 kg ha-1. Gujarat and Rajasthan account for 92% of the total castor area under irrigated conditions while 8% of the total castor area is under rainfed conditions (Solvent Extractors of India, India) mainly distributed in the states of Telangana, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu etc. Hybrid castor cultivation is also increasing in non-traditional areas of Madhya Pradesh (0.13 lakh ha), Maharashtra (0.11 lakh ha) and Haryana under irrigated conditions.  

At present, GCH-8, GCH-9, GNCH-1, YRCH-2 and ICH-66 are the latest high yielding hybrids released for cultivation in India.  48-1, DCS-107, GC-3, Pragathi, YTP-1 and GAC-11 are the important varieties in cultivation. Hybrids and varieties, their year of release, parentage, their salient features and seed source are provided below.

Salient features of important castor hybrids recommended for different regions

Hybrid Year of Release Parentage Average yield ( kg ha-1) Areas recommended Salient features Source of seed
RF IR
GAUCH-1 1976 VP-1 x GAUC-1 - 1520 Irrigated areas of Gujarat, rainfed areas of southern India Early maturing hybrid with drought escape mechanism Gujarat State Seed Corporation Ltd, Gandhinagar, Gujarat-382043
GCH-2 1986 VP-1 x  JI 35 - 1750 Irrigated areas of Gujarat Tolerant to root rot Gujarat State Seed Corporation Ltd, Gandhinagar Gujarat-382043
GCH-4 1988 VP-1 x 48-1 1200 2200 Rainfed and irrigate areas Resistant to leafhopper, tolerant to Fusarium wilt  Gujarat State Seed Corporation Ltd, Gandhinagar Gujarat-382043
GCH-5 1997 Geeta x SH 72 1800 2800 Rainfed and irrigated areas of Gujarat Red, double bloom, medium duration (120-180 days), semi spiny, tolerant to wilt  Gujarat State Seed Corporation Ltd, Gandhinagar Gujarat-382043
GCH-6 1999 JP 65 x JI 96 1300 2300 Rainfed and irrigated late 
kharif regions of Gujarat, Rajasthan and Maharashtra
Red, single bloom, spiny, medium duration (120-180 days),  tolerant to Macrophomina root rot Gujarat State Seed Corporation Ltd, Gandhinagar Gujarat-382043
DCH-177 2000 DPC 9 x DCS 9 1550 2130 Rainfed areas of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra  Red single bloom, spiny, early duration (90-150 days), resistant to Fusarium wilt ICAR-Indian Institute of Oilseeds Research, Hyderabad, Telangana-500030
RHC-1 2000 VP-1 x TMV5-1 900-1200 3000-3200 Rainfed and irrigated areas of Rajasthan Mahogany, triple bloom, spiny, medium duration (100-180 days), resistant to leafhopper  Agricultural University, Jodhpur, Rajasthan-342304
DCH-519 2006 M 574 x DCS 78 1740 2130 Rainfed and irrigated 
areas
Green, triple bloom, spiny, resistant to Fusarium wilt, leafhopper  ICAR-Indian Institute of Oilseeds Research, Hyderabad, Telangana-500030
GCH-7 2006 SKP 84 x SKI 215 - 3000 Irrigated areas of Gujarat Resistant to nematode-wilt complex Gujarat State Seed Corporation-Ltd Gandhinagar Gujarat-382043
YRCH-1 2009 DPC-9 x TMV-5 780 - Rainfed and irrigated areas of Tamil Nadu Moderately resistant to capsule borer Tapioca and Castor Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agrl. University, Yethapur, Tamil Nadu- 636 119
PCH-111 2012 DPC-9 x CS-1 1500 2000 Rainfed and irrigated areas of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana Resistant to Fusarium wilt and moderately tolerant to sucking pests, semilooper and spodoptera Regional Agricultural Research Station (RARS), PJTSAU, Palem, Telangana-509381
GCH-8 2018 JP-96 X DCS-89 1895 3588 Rainfed and irrigated areas  Mahogany, triple bloom, semi-spiny, resistant to Fusarium wilt, leafhopper  Castor-Mustard Research Station, Sardarkrushinagar, Dantiwada Agricultural    University, Sardarkrushinagar, Gujarat-385 506
GCH-9 2018 SKP-84 x PCS-124 - 3820 Gujarat Red, triple bloom,  Resistant to Fusarium wilt and Macrophomina root rot Main Oilseeds Research Station, JAU, Junagadh,  Gujarat-362015,
GNCH-1 2017 SKP-84 X DCS-94 - 2545 Gujarat Red, triple bloom, semi-spiny, resistant to Fusarium wilt, leafhopper  Gujarat State Seed Corporation Ltd Gandhinagar  Gujarat-382043
YRCH-2 2018 M-619 X SKI-215 - 2089 Rainfed and irrigated Red, triple bloom, semi-spiny, resistant to Fusarium wilt, leafhopper  Tapioca and castor Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Yethapur, Salem District, Tamil Nadu-636 119
ICH-66 2019 SKP-84 x ICS-164 1560 - Rainfed regions of AP, Telangana, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Odisha Red, triple bloom, semi-spiny, resistant to Fusarium wilt, Macrophomina root rot and leafhopper ICAR-Indian Institute of Oilseeds Research, Hyderabad, Telangana-500030
GCH 2020 SP-1xS-14   3898 Gujarat Red, triple bloom, spiny, resistant to Fusarium wilt and leafhopper Sansoli, Anand Agricultural University, Anand, Gujarat-387130

Salient features of important castor varieties recommended for different regions

Variety Year of release Parentage Average yield (kg ha-1) Areas recommended Salient features Source of seed
RF IR
48-1 (Jwala) 2007 High Oil Mutant x Mauthner’s Dwarf 1100 2000 All castor growing regions of India Resistant to Fusarium wilt, tolerant to Botrytis, saline and drought conditions ICAR-Indian Institute of Oilseeds Research, Hyderabad, Telangana-500030
DCS-107 2011 DCH-177 x JI-133 1200-1430 2140-2510 All castor growing regions of India Resistant to Fusarium wilt ICAR-Indian Institute of Oilseeds Research, Hyderabad, Telangana-500030
GC-3 2012 (JP-65 x JI-88) x 48-1 1500 2000 Irrigated conditions of Gujarat Resistant to Fusarium wilt and tolerant to Macrophomina root rot Main Oilseeds Research Station, JAU, Junagadh, Gujarat-362015
Pragathi 2015 M-574 x PCS-124 1500-1800 2500-2800 Rainfed conditions of Telangana Resistant to Fusarium wilt Regional Agricultural Research Station (RARS), PJTSAU, Palem, Telangana-509381
YTP-1 (YRCS-1205) 2019 TMV-6 x Salem Local 1450 as annual crop (7 months) 3110 /year as perennial (12 months) Rainfed and irrigated perennial ecosystem of Tamil Nadu Non-lodging, non-shattering, suitable both as annual and perennial, intercropping system perennial  Tapioca and Castor Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Yethapur, Salem District, Tamil Nadu-636 119
GAC-11 2019 Selection from base population of ANDCI-8 2360 3230 Irrigated & rainfed middle Gujarat, kharif season Resistant to Fusarium wilt Agricultural Research Station, Anand Agricultural University, Sansoli, Gujarat-387130

Content contributed by T Manjunatha* and C Lavanya, ICAR-Indian Institute of Oilseeds Research, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500030 *Corresponding author, Email: t.manjunatha@icar.gov.in 



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