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Sesame

Sesame ( Sesamum indicum L.) is the oldest indigenous oilseed crop, with longest history of cultivation in India. Sesame or gingelly is commonly known as til (Hindi, Punjabi, Assamese, Bengali, Marathi), tal (Gujarati), nuvvulu, manchi nuvvulu (Telugu), ellu (Tamil, Malayalam, Kannada), tila/pitratarpana (Sanskrit) and rasi (Odia ) in different parts of India.

India ranks first in world with 19.47 Lakh ha area and 8.66 Lakh tonnes production. The average yield of sesame (413 kg/ha) in India is low as compared with other countries in the world (535 kg / ha). The main reasons for low productivity of sesame are its rainfed cultivation in marginal and submarginal lands under poor management and input starved conditions. However, improved varieties and agro production technologies capable of increasing the productivity levels of sesame are now developed for different agro ecological situations in the country. A well managed crop of sesame can yield 1200 - 1500 kg/ha under irrigated and 800 - 1000 kg/ha under rainfed conditions.

The crop is grown in almost all parts of the country. More than 85% production of sesame comes from West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana.

Season and climate

Sesame is grown in almost all the states in large or small areas. It can be cultivated up to the latitude of 1600m (India 1200 m). Sesame plant needs fairly high temperature during its life cycle. Normally the optimum temperature required during its life cycle is between 25 - 35 degree C. If the temperature is more than 40 degree C with hot winds the oil content reduces. If the temperature goes beyond 45 degree C or less than 15 degree C there is a severe reduction in yield.

Season : Kharif in arid and semi-arid tropics and rabi/summer in cooler areas

Climate : Semi arid climate of Western India, Central, Eastern and Southern part of India including lower Himalayas

Cropping systems

State

Crop Sequence

Andhra Pradesh

Rice-Groundnut-Sesame, Sesame - Horsegram, Finger millet/Sorghum/Horsegram - Sesame, Sesame - Upland Rice

Bihar

Early Rice - Potato-Summer Sesame/Green gram, Kharif Sesame-Maize/Pigeonpea/Chickpea, Wheat-Summer Sesame/Green gram

Gujarat

Sesame-Wheat/Mustard

Karnataka

Sesame-Horsegram/Chickpea

Madhya Pradesh

Cotton-Sesame-Wheat, Rice -Summer Sesame, Sesame-Wheat

Maharashtra

Sesame (Early)-Rabi Sorghum/Safflower, Cotton-Sesame-Wheat

Odisha

Rice/Potato-Sesame, kharif Sesame-Maize/Pigeonpea/Chickpea

Rajasthan

Sesame-Wheat/Green gram/Barley

Tamil Nadu

Rice/Groundnut-Sesame, Sesame-Black gram, Sesame-Rabi Sorghum, Sesame-Green gram, Cowpea-Sesame

Uttar Pradesh

Sesame (Early)-Chickpea/Rapeseed & Mustard/Lentil/Pea

West Bengal

Potato-Sesame (Late Jan./Early Feb), Rice – Sesame

Varieties

For upland cultivation use varieties with long duration of 100-110 days and for low land, use varieties with duration of 80-99 days.

Sesame varieties

State

Variety

Seed Colour

Gujarat

Guj. Til-1,  2, 3

Guj. Til-10

White seed

Black seed

Madhya Pradesh

TKG-21,  22,  55,  306,  308  and JTS – 8

PKDS-11,  12

PKDS-8

White seed

Dark brown seed

Bold black seeded

Rajasthan

RT-46, 103,  125,  127,  346,  351

RT-54

White seed

Light brown seed

Maharashtra

AKT-64 , AKT-101, JLT-408,  PKVNT-11

White seed

Uttar Pradesh

T-78,  Sekhar

White seed

Tamil Nadu

TSS-6

Co-1,  Paiyur-1, VRI-1, VRI-2, TMV-7

White seed

Black and Brown seed

West Bengal

Rama,  Savitri

Brown seed

Odisha

Nirmala,  Shubhra

Prachi,  Amrit

Smarak

White seed

Brown / Black seed

Golden yellow and bold seed

Andhra Pradesh

Varaha, Gautama, Chandana

Swetha Til, Hima

Brown seed

White seed

Karnataka

DS-1

DSS-9

Dark brown seed

White bold seed

Soil

Sesame can be grown on a wide range of soils but well drained light to medium textured soils are preferred. The optimum pH range is 5.5 to 8.0, acidic or alkaline soils are not suitable.

Seed rate

A seed rate of 5 kg/ha is adequate to achieve the required plant population.

Sowing

For prevention of seed borne diseases, use seed treated with Bavistin 2.0 g/kg seed. Wherever bacterial leaf spot disease is a problem, soak the seed for 30 minutes in 0.025% solution of Agrimycin-100 prior to seeding.

Preparation of land
Prepare the soil into a fine tilth by ploughing 2-4 times and breaking the clods. Broadcast seeds evenly. To facilitate easy seeding and even distribution seed is mixed with either sand or dry soil or well sieved farm yard manure in 1:20 ratio. Work with harrow, followed by pressing with wooden plank so as to cover the seed in the soil.

Sowing Time and Spacing

State

Season

Sowing time

Spacing (cm)

Andhra Pradesh/

Coastal Telangana

Kharif

Summer

Kharif

Second fortnight of May

Second fortnight of January

Second fortnight of July

30 x 15

30 x 15

30 x 10-15

Assam

Kharif

July-August

30 x 10-15

Bihar/ Jharkhand

Kharif

July

30 x 15

Gujarat

Kharif

Semi-rabi

Summer

Last week of June to second fortnight of July

Mid September

January-February

45 x 10

45 x 10

45 x 15

Karnataka

North

South

 

Kharif

Early Kharif

 

June-July

April-May

 

30 x 15

30 x 15

Kerala

Kharif

Summer

August

December

30 x 10-15

30 x 15

Madhya Pradesh

/Chhattisgarh

Kharif

Semi-rabi

Summer

First week of July

Late August-Early September

Second to last week of February

30 x 10-15

30 x 15

30 x 15

Maharashtra

Kharif

Semi-rabi

Summer

Second fortnight of June to July

Early September

February

30 x 15

30 x 15

45 x 15

Odisha

Kharif

Rabi

Summer

June-July

September-October

February

30 x 15

30 x 15

30 x 15

Punjab/ Haryana

Kharif

Second fortnight of July

30 x 10-15

Rajasthan

Kharif

Late June-Early July

30 x 15

Tamil Nadu

Kharif

Rabi

Summer

Second fortnight of May to Second fortnight of June

November-December

Second fortnight of January to March

22.5 x 22.5

22.5 x 22.5

30 x 10

Uttar Pradesh & Uttarakhand

Kharif

Second fortnight of July

30-45 x 15

West Bengal

Summer

February-March

30 x 15

Manuring

Apply cattle manure/compost as basal dressing and incorporate into the soil along with last ploughing. Apply fertilizers as basal dose when there is enough moisture in the soil. Urea is preferable to ammonium sulphate. Nitrogen may be applied in split doses, 75 per cent as basal and the balance as foliar spray at 3 per cent concentration, 20-35 days after sowing keeping the discharge rate at 500 1 ha-1.

State/ Situation

Recommended dose of N:P:K (kg/ha)

Specific recommendation

Andhra Pradesh - Coastal region

Telangana

40-40-20


30-30-20

 

-

Gujarat

Kharif

 

Semi-rabi

 

30-25-0

25-25-0

37.5-25-25

 

Apply sulphur @ 20-40 kg/ha.

 

Half N + full P2O5 and K2O as basal, remaining half N at 30-35 DAS.

Madhya Pradesh /Chhattisgarh

Rainfed

Summer

 

 

40-30-20

60-40-20

 

 

Apply 25 kg/ha zinc sulphate once in three years in zinc deficient soils.

Maharashtra

50-0-0

Half N at 3 weeks after sowing and  remaining half 6 weeks thereafter

Odisha

30-20-30

-

Rajasthan

Heavy soils

Light soils

 

20-20-0

40-25-0

 

For areas with less than 350 mm rainfall

For areas with more than 350mm rainfall

Tamil Nadu

Irrigated

Rainfed

 

35-23-23

25-15-15

 

Apply full dose of N, P2O5, K2O as basal.

Seed may be treated with Azospirillum.

Uttar Pradesh /Uttarakhand

20-10-0

-

West Bengal

Irrigated

Rainfed

 

50-25-25

25-13-13

 

No fertilizer if sown after potato.

 

Interculture

The crop is very sensitive to weed competition during the first 20-25 days. Two weeding, one after 15-20 days of sowing and other at 30-35 days after sowing are required to keep the field weed free and to make moisture and nutrients available to the crop.

When the plants are about 15 cm in height, thin the crop so as to give a spacing of 15-25 cm between plants.

State-wise intercropping

State

Intercropping System

Gujarat

Sesame+Groundnut / Urd bean (3:3)

Sesame+Pearlmillet / Cotton (3:1)

Karnataka

Sesame+Groundnut (1:4)

Madhya Pradesh

Sesame+Green gram / Black gram (2:2 or 3:3)

Sesame+Soybean (2:1 or 2:2)

Maharastra

Sesame+Pearlmillet / Black gram (3:1)

Odisha

Sesame+ Summer Groundnut (2:3)

Sesame+Green gram/Black gram (2:2)

Rajasthan

Sesame+Pearlmillet / Mothbean (1:1)

Tamil Nadu

Sesame+Green gram / Black gram (3:3)

Sesame+Pigeonpea (3:1), Sesame+Groundnut (2:4)

Uttar Pradesh

Sesame+Green gram (1:1), Sesame+ Pigeonpea (3:1)

West Bengal

Sesame+ Groundnut (1:3 or 2:2)

Irrigation

  • Usually the crop is grown under rainfed conditions. When facilities are available, the crop may be irrigated to field capacity after thinning operation and thereafter at 15-20 days interval.
  • Stop irrigation just before the pods begin to mature. Surface irrigation at 3 cm depth during the critical stages, viz., 4-5 leaves, branching, flowering and pod formation will increase the yield by 35-52 per cent.
  • Two irrigations of 3 cm depth each in the vegetative phase (4-5 leaf stage or branching) and in reproductive phase (at flowering or pod formation) are the best, registering maximum yield and water use efficiency.
  • In the case of single irrigation, it can be best given in the reproductive phase.
  • In the tail end fields in command area, best use of the sparingly available water can be made for augmenting sesame production.

Plant protection

  • For control of leaf and pod caterpillar, remove affected leaves and shoots and dust with carbaryl 10 per cent.
  • Azadirachtin 0.03 per cent at 5 ml per litre spray at 7th and 20th DAS and thereafter need based application can manage the incidence of leaf and pod caterpillar, pod borer infestation and phyllody incidence.
  • For control of gall fly, give preventive spray with 0.2 per cent carbaryl.
  • For control of leaf curl disease, remove and destroy disease affected sesame plants as well as the diseased collateral hosts like chilli, tomato and zinnia.
  • Remove plants affected with phyllody and destroy them. Do not use seeds from affected plants for sowing.

Harvesting

  • Harvest the crop, when the leaves turn yellow and start drooping and the bottom capsules are lemon yellow by pulling out the plants. Harvest during the morning hours.
  • Cut the root portion and stack the plants in bundles for 3-4 days when the leaves will fall off. Spread in the sun and beat with sticks to break open the capsules.
  • Repeat this for 3 days. Preserve seeds collected during the first day for seed purposes. Clean and dry in sun for about 7 days before storing.

Storage of seeds

  • By keeping sesame seeds in polybags, tin bins, wooden receptacles or in earthen pots, the viability can be maintained for about one year.
  • Admixture of seeds with ash will drastically reduce germination.

Source : NMOOP

Related resources

  1. District-wise Promising Technologies for Rainfed Sesame based Production System in India
  2. Market profile of Sesame
  3. AESA based IPM – Sesame


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