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Field Pea

Selection of land

Pea crop can be grown on a wide range of soils but  it grows well on well- drained loamy soil. Water logging is injurious to the crop. If the soil is acidic, liming has to be done after soil analysis.

Preparation of land

Thoroughly prepared seed bed is required for pea cultivation. First ploughing should be given by soil inverting ploughs like mould board plough. Two subsequent ploughings accompanied by planking will be sufficient to obtain desired tilth of the seed bed. Care should be taken to provide gentle gradient so that excess water may not stand in the field.

Varieties

  • T-163
  • VL-1
  • Rachna

Sowing time

Seed can be sown from 15th October to ending November.

Seed rate

The seed rate of 75 to 80 kg /ha is recommended. In case of bold seeded varieties, seed rate can be increased up to 100 kg/ha.

Sowing of seed

Line sowing with the help of seed drill or opening the furrows at 30-40 cm between the rows. The seed should be placed 5 to 6 cm deep in the soil. Seeds may be inoculated with Rhizobium culture for quick fixation of atmospheric nitrogen.

Fertilization

Application of 20 kg/ha of nitrogen as a starter dose will be sufficient to meet the nitrogen requirement of the crop in the initial stage. It will be advisable to apply the fertilizers as per the results of soil analysis. However, in absence of soil test, it would be advisable to apply 50 kg each of P2O5 and K2O per ha as basal dose.

Irrigation

During the growth period, peas should receive at least two irrigations during the month of May/June, if rainfall does not occur.

Harvesting and threshing

At maturity, all the leaves turn yellow and fall down leaving behind stalks with pods. Care should be taken while threshing is done i.e, not to over beat or over trample which may damage the seed coat and reduce quality. Moisture content of 13 to 14 % in seed is ideal for threshing purpose.

Storage

The grains should carefully be dried before storage to ensure that moisture content does not exceed 10%. The seed can be stored in dry bins or in bags kept on wooden racks under cool and dry conditions.

Common diseases of Peas and their control

Name of the host

Disease and casual organism

Symptoms

Control measures

Pea

Powdery mildew

(Erysiphy polygoni)

The first signs are in the form of faint, slightly discolored, tiny specks which spread to form variously sized areas and over run the leaf,stem or pod.

Underneath this, the pod or leaf may assume a brown or purplish color and in the powdery area dark to black cliestothecia (pin heads) may form.

Spray the crop thrice with Sulfur fungicide such as Sultaf or Suprsol @ 0.25% concentration at an interval of 15 days starting after the appearance of disease.

Common inset pests of Peas and their management

Name of the pest

Nature of damage

Period of activity

Management

Pod borer

Young larvae feed on tender portion of leaves and shoots. Grown-up larvae bore into pods and feed on developing grains.

April to July

For peas, spray Endosulfan 0.05 to 0.07 % or Carbaryl 0.15 to 0.2% at the onset of first flush of flowering and repeat after 25 days interval, if necessary.

Leaf miner

The larvae mine leaves making prominent whitish tunnels resulting in the loss of green matter and also affecting flowering and pod formation.

March to June

Soil application of Carbofuran 3G @32 kg/ha will take care of aphids, white grubs and leaf miners.

Aphids

Suck sap from tender shoots of the plants resulting in stunted growth. Leaves may sometimes turn yellow and dry up. The formation of flowers and pods is adversely affected.

April to July

In case peas are to be consumed as fresh vegetable, apply Dichlorvos @ 0.05 %.

White grubs

Grubs damage the roots

March to July

a) Proper tillage operations before sowing will expose the grubs and other soil insects to their natural enemies and weather conditions.

b) Treat the soil with carbofuron3G granules 25-30 kg/ha or Carbaryl 10% dust @ 25-30 kg/ha before sowing of seed in case of heavy pest infestation.

Source : KVK Kulgam



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