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ICAR Rabi season Agro Advisory for Telangana

Rice

  • Select short duration varieties i.e., Talanaga Sona (RNR 15048), Batukamma (JGL 18047), Kunaram Sannalu (KNM 118), Tellahamsa (RNR 10754), Cottondora Sannalu (MTU 1010) and Nelluri Mashuri (NLR 34449).
  • Treat the seed with Carbendazim @ 3 g. per kg of seed before sowing. For Wet nursery, soak the seeds in Carbendazim solution @ 1 g. per litre of water for 24 hours and sprouted seeds are broadcasted into nursery plot. For rabi puddled wet nursery, use sprouted rice seedlings. For 200 m2 nusrery apply additional 2 quintals of poultry manure or sheep manure or vermicompost as basal along with recommended dose of fertilizers (N and K). Double the dose of Phosphorus during basal application.
  • To protect the nursery from severe cold, cover the nursery during evening hours with polythene sheets or polywoven Urea bag sheets supported by steel rods or bamboo sticks and remove the sheets during morning.
  • To correct zinc deficiency, spray Zinc Sulphate @ 2g per liter of water. Spray a combination of Carbendazim + Mancozeb 2g/ kg of Urea whenever application of Urea is there. Irrigate the field during evening hours and drain the water in the morning.
  • To control Blast in Rabi rice nurseries, spray Tricyclazole @ 0.6 g per liter of water.
  • To control Stem borer, spray Cartap Hydrochloride 50 S.P @ 2 g. or Chlorantriniliprole @ 0.3 ml per liter of water.
  • To control Leaf folder, spray Cartap hydrochloride @ 2 g. per litre of water
  • To control Rice whorl maggot, spray Fipronil (5 SC) @ 2.5 ml per liter water or apply Cartap Hydrochloride granules @ 8 kg per acre.
  • If False smut noticed, spray two times, Propiconazole @ 1 ml or Carbendazim 50 WP @ 1 g. or Tebuconazole + Tryfloxystrobin 75 WG @ 0.4 g. per litre of water once at heading stage and again one week after first spray.
  • To control Panicle mite, spray Dicofol @ 5ml + Propiconazole @ 1 ml or Spiromesifen @ 1 ml + Propiconazole @ 1 ml per litre of water.
  • To control Neck blast, spray Tricyclazole @ 0.6 g. or Isoprothiolane @ 1.5 ml or Kasugamycin @ 2.5 ml per litre of water. Spray again with an interval of 10-15 days based on severity of incidence and prevailing environmental conditions.
  • If Sheath blight is noticed, spray Hexaconazole 5 E.C or 5 S.C @ 2ml or Propiconazole @ 1 ml or Tebuconazole @ 1 ml + Tryfloxystrobin 75 WG @ 0.4 g. per litre of water two times at an interval of 15 days.

Maize

  • Recommended time of sowing October to November. In rice fallow maize zero tillage system, up to December.
  • Use Medium duration (DHM 117, DHM 119, DHM 121, Bisco 855, Bio 9637, Karimnagar Makka 1, JKMH 4848, Karimnagar Makka and Short duration hybrids (DHM-115, Pioneer 3342, KH 5991, DKC 7074 for profitable yields.
  • Time of sowing Yasangi: October to November. In rice fallow maize zero tillage system, up to December is preferable.
  • Fertilizer requirement: 80-100 kg N, 32 kg P2 O5 , 32 kg K2O per acre is recommended. Nitrogen may be applied in four splits viz., at sowing, knee high stage (30-35 DAS), at flag leaf emergence (50- 55 DAS) and at tasseling-silking stage (60-65 DAS). Apply 20 kg of Zinc sulphate per acre for every 2-3 seasons. If symptoms appear later, the crop can be sprayed with 2 g/l solution of Zinc sulphate.
  • Four to six irrigations are needed during the Yasangi season. Two irrigations up to flowering at an interval of 20-25 days, one at the time of flowering, two after flowering and one at the early grain filling stage. If five irrigations are given, one irrigation at the vegetative stage may be avoided and if only four irrigations are given, one irrigation after the dough stage may be avoided. The irrigation schedule may however be changed suitably based on the soil conditions.
  • Integrated pest management is the best option for management of FAW viz., summer ploughing, growing single cross hybrids, clean cultivation, intercropping with pulses, balanced application of fertilizers, release of egg parasitoids (Trichogrammasp) and as a last resort spray Chlorantraniliprole @ 0.4 ml or Spinetoram @ 0.5 ml or Emamectin benzoate @ 0.4 g/l of water in plant whorls.
  • For Post Flowering Stalk Rots, invariably to go for crop rotation, removing plant debris, summer ploughing, application of balanced K fertilizer, avoiding moisture stress after flowering and growing tolerant hybrids should be followed.
  • For zero tillage maize Dibble the seed after harvesting Vanakalam rice at 2-3 cm depth, in optimum moisture, or else, give light irrigation before dibbling depending on the soil type.
  • Spraying of Combination of Gramoxone 1.0 l/ac and Atrazine 1.0 kg/ac can also be used for controlling re-growth of rice stubbles and broad-leaved weeds.

Groundnut

  • Seed treatment: Seed treatment with Tebuconazole @ 1g or Mancozeb @ 3g per kg of seed. At places where stem rot is common, treat the seeds with Imidacloprid (600 F.S) @ 1 ml in 7 ml of water per kg of seed before sowing. Wherever severe root grub incidence is common, seed treatment should be done with Chlorpyriphos @ 6.5 ml before sowing. For newly sown Groundnut fields or Groundnut sown under previous paddy fields, treat the seeds with Rhizobium culture @ 200 g. per kgs of seed for 1 acre. At places where dry root rot and stem rot is common treat the seed with Trichoderma @ 10 g. per kg of seed for better control.
  • For efficient weed control, spray pre-emergence herbicides such as Alachlor @ 1litre or Pendimethalin (30% EC) @ 1.30-1.60 litres per 200 liters of water, immediately after sowing or 2-3 days after sowing. Inter cultivation should be done 25-30 days after sowing. Maintain weed free conditions in the field up to 45 days after sowing.
  • To control Spodoptera, install 4-5 Pheromone traps per acre. Spray 5% NSKE solution to control early-stage larvae. To control later stage larvae spray Novaluron @ 200ml or Flubendiamide @ 400 ml per 200 liters of water per acre. Use Poison bait pellets prepared with rice bran 5 kg + Jaggery 0.5 kg + 500 ml Monochrotophos and broadcast them in field at evening hours.
  • To manage Tikka leaf spot, spray Chlorothalonil @ 400 g. or Tebuconazole @ 200 ml per 200 litre per acre.
  • To control leaf folder Spray Chlorpyriphos @ 500 ml or Acephate @ 300 g per 200 liters of water per acre.

Chickpea

  • Sowing should be done in rows with spacing of 30 x 10 cm to maintain optimum plant population of 30-35 plants /sq.mt. to get good yields.
  • Use of Wilt resistant varieties suitable for mechanical harvesting JG-11, JAKI- 9218, NBeG-3, NBeg-47.
  • Under late sowing situations, higher plant densities are recommended upto 44 plants /m2 through increased seed rate and zig zag sowings
  • Optimum time of sowing is October –November.
  • For the prevention of soil and seed borne diseases-damping off, seed rot, wilt, dry root rot and better yield seed should be treated with fungicides and antifungal bio agents. Captan or Thiram @ 3 g or Mancozeb or Carbendazim @ 2.5 g per kg seed.
  • Pre emergence Spray of Pendimethalin @ 2.5 to 3.5 l/ha immediately after sowing or within 24 hrs of sowing will be effective in controlling the seasonal weeds.
  • Apply 20 kg N, 50 Kg P2O5, 40 kg S/ha as basal dose at the time of last ploughing. Phosphate should be given in form of Super phosphate.
  • One or two light irrigations at pre flowering at 30-35 days and seed formation at 55-65 days will increase yields. Avoid water logging at any cost as chickpea is very sensitive to poor soil aeration.
  • Foliar sprays of 2 % DAP or Urea at pre flowering stage will enhance yields.
  • Spray Chloropyriphos @ 2.5 ml or Quinolphos @ 2.0ml/l for control of leaf eating caterpillar.

Sesame

  • Sesame can be grown on a wide range of soils but well drained light to medium textured soils is preferred.
  • Keep the field weed free and perfectly levelled to avoid water logging to which sesame is highly sensitive.
  • For the prevention of seed borne diseases, use treated seed with Carbendazim @ 3 g/kg of seed
  • Time of sowing for summer crop is January Second Fortnight to February first fortnight.
  • The crop is very sensitive to weed competition during the first 20- 25 days. Two weedings, one after 15-20 days of sowing and other at 30-35 days after sowing are required to keep the field weed free and to make moisture and nutrients available to the crop.
  • For Summer crop give the irrigation, immediately after sowing to improve germination and plant establishment. The subsequent irrigations may be given at an interval of 12-15 days depending on the soil type, weather conditions and season. For good seed filling and yield, irrigations at flower initiation and capsule formation are essentially required.

Sunflower

  • Sunflower performs well on a wide range of soils such as sandy loams, black soils and alluvials. It prefers mostly fertile, welldrained neutral soils. It can tolerate slight alkaline conditions but not acidity. Water logging areas should be avoided for its cultivation.
  • Light period of 8-10 hrs during flowering and seed filling stage improves yield and oil content.
  • During Yasangi season and under Zero tillage conditions, optimum sowing time is November- December. For Summer season 2nd fortnight of January to 1st fortnight of February is optimum time.
  • Seed treatment with Thiomethaxom @ 3 gm / kg seed or Imidacloprid @ 5 ml /kg seed can protect the crop against necrosis. For the control of Alternaria leaf spot, seed treatment with Iprodione 25% + Carbendazim 25 % @ 2 g per kg seed is to be done.
  • For Weed control used pre-emergence application of Oxadiargil @ 150g per acre within 24-48 hrs after sowing on wet soil.
  • Apply 5-7.5 tonnes of FYM/compost/ha 2-3 weeks prior to sowing. It is desirable to apply fertilizers based on soil test values. Apply 50% N and 100% P & K as basal and remaining N as in two doses.
  • Apply Gypsum @ 55 kg/acre in sulphur deficit soils which improves the oil content. Boron is an essential micronutrient for sunflower, which increases seed filling and yield. Apply Borax @ 2g/l as directed spray to capitulum at star bud stage. First dissolve borax in hot water and make up to the required volume.
  • Bud initiation stage (35-40 DAS), flower opening stage (55-65 DAS) and seed filling stage (65-80 DAS) are the most critical stages in sunflower. Moisture stress at these stages causes significant yield reduction. During Yasangi season by adopting drip irrigation method which can be scheduled for every 2-3 days can save 20-25% of irrigation water.
  • When sunflower is raised in isolated areas, birds particularly parrots pose serious problem. It is desirable to take up sunflower cultivation in large continuous blocks of 20-25 acres. Crop should be protected from seed filling to harvest through effective bird scaring particularly in the morning and evening hours. Tying of reflective ribbons above the crop will supplement the bird scaring. 

Safflower

  • Safflower requires cool and dry climate during its entire growing season. High temperatures at the time of flowering are harmful to the crop. At all the stages of growth, excessive rainfall or humidity increases the infestation of fungal diseases.
  • Some of the important diseases of safflower like Fusarium wilt can be transmitted through seeds. Therefore, it is always advisable to treat the seeds with appropriate fungicide like Thiram, Captan @ 3 g/kg seed or with Carbendizim @ 1g/kg seed.
  • Planting time for safflower September 2nd fortnight to October 1st fortnight. Under extended rainfall situations, the crop can be sown till end of October to first week of November.
  • Well drained deep black soils are most suitable. The crop can come up well even in light textured soils provided irrigation facility is available. Alkaline reaction favors wilt disease.
  • Cultivation of cotton after safflower or vice-versa should be avoided as it results in poor yields and inefficient exploitation of nutrients because of their identical rooting habits.
  • Under Rainfed conditions, the entire recommended fertilizers are to be applied as basal. In the traditional single cropped yasangi tracts of the state, application of recommended fertilizers 2-3 weeks prior to optimum planting time is recommended for maximum efficiency under receding soil moisture.
  • The flowering and grain filling stages are more sensitive to water stress conditions. One irrigation 30 days after planting helps in better growth of the crop. In soils that crack, apply irrigation well before cracks develop for better control of water.
  • First 20 to 35 days are critical for crop –weed competition. Alachlor 50% or Pedimethalin 30% 2.5 l /ha.as Pre-Emergence is recommended. Harrowing at 25 DAS and 45 to 50 DAS not only controls weeds, but also conserves the soil moisture.
  • Spray of Dimethoate @ 2ml or Monocrotophos @1.6ml or Chlorpyriphos @ 2.5 ml at 40 and 60 DAS is recommended to control aphids.

Horticultural Crops

Sweet orange

  • Incidence of Dry root rot is noticed in sweet orange. If noticed initially, irrigate the field and next day drench the soil near tree base with Carbendazim @ 2 g. or Mancozeb @ 3 g. per litre of water or 1% Bordeaux Mixture. Use more of Organic fertilizers such as green manures and apply the mixture of 1 Kg of Trichoderma culture with 90 kg farmyard manure and 10 kg Neem powder incubated for 15 days near tree base @ 10 kg mixture per plant. Spray Urea @ 1 kg per 100 litres of water.
  • Micronutrient deficiency was observed at some places. To correct it spray Formula-4 @ 5 g per litre of water on young flush and fruit at peas size stage.
  • To manage mangu mite, spray water soluble Sulphur @ 3 g or Propargite @ 1 ml per litre of water, two times with an interval of 15 days.
  • To control Leaf Folder in Sweet Orange, Spray Neem oil @ 5 ml (1000 ppm) per litre of water and if incidence becomes severe spray Profenophos 50 E.C @ 2 ml or Imidacloprid 17.8 S. L @ 0.5 ml or Novluron 10 E.C @ 0.7 ml or Thiomethaxom 25 W.G @ 0.3 g. + Dichlorvos 76 E.C @ 0.5 ml per litre of water. Spray chemical pesticides 14 days after Neem Oil Spray for efficient control of insect.
  • Intercultivation should not be done when the tree is in Flowering and Fruiting stage.
  • Irrigation should be done regularly as the Temperatures rises.
  • 2,4-D @ 15 ppm. (1 g per 100 liters) should be sprayed at the time of Flowering, one month after Fruiting and one month before harvesting the fruits.
  • To control Stem end rot in Sweet Orange, Spray Carbendazim @ 1 g. per litre of Water.
  • Apply Bordeaux paste on broken branches and stems of sweet orange and Acid lime after hail storms to avoid Fungal infections.

Acid lime

  • If dry root rot is noticed initially, irrigate the field and next day drench the soil near tree base with Carbendazim @ 2 g. or Mancozeb @ 3 g. per litre of water or 1% Bordeaux Mixture. Use more of Organic fertilizers such as green manures and apply the mixture of 1 Kg of Trichoderma culture with 90 kg farmyard manure and 10 kg Neem powder incubated for 15 days near tree base @ 10 kg mixture per plant. Spray Urea @ 1 kg per 100 litres of water.
  • To control Canker disease use Balaji, resistant variety. Cut the infected branches, Spray 2 to 3 times streptocyclin @ 1 g and Copper oxy chloride @ 30 g per 10 liter of water with an interval of 20 days. Apply Bordeaux mixture on infected stem base and branches after scraping of infected bark.
  • Apply Bordeaux paste on broken branches and stems after hailstorms to avoid Fungal infections.

Mango

  • Spray KNO3 @ 10 g per litre of water and Boron @ 1.25 g per litre of water separately for uniform flowering and fruiting.
  • To manage sucking pests in mango, first burn the dropped fruits and spray 2 times Chlorpyriphos @ 2ml or Dichlorvos @ 1.5 ml or Carbaryl @ 3 g + Neem oil (1500 ppm) @ 2.5ml per liter of water with an interval of 15 days.
  • Low temperatures, cloudy weather and higher atmospheric humidity favours the incidence of mango hoppers. To control them spray Dimethoate @ 2 ml or Chlorpyriphos @ 2.5 ml per litre of water at flower initiation and fruit formation stages.
  • Low night temperatures and hot day temperatures favours the incidence of Powdery mildew in mango. To control, spray water soluble Sulphur @ 3 g or Kerathane @ 1 ml or Myclobutanil @ 1 g or Hexaconazole @ 2 ml per litre of water.
  • Spray Naphthalene Acetic Acid @ 20 ppm twice during January to February to reduce flower drop.
  • Spray KNO3 (13-0-45) @ 10 g per liter of water to retain marble sized fruits.
  • To control flower and fruit drop due to prevailing weather conditions spray 2 times 1 % Urea (10g/liter), once at marble size fruits and another at 20 days after first spray or spray 1 % KNO3 (10g/liter).
  • To increase the fruit size in Mango Spray 10 g. 13-0-45 + 1.25 g. Boron per Litre of water.
  • To control Mango fruit fly, apply Parathion around the tree basin @ 50-100 g. per tree to control pupae in the soil. To attract adult flies, arrange white or Yellow Methyl eugenol traps @ 4 per acre. Application of Poison bait that is mixture of 50 ml Malathion and 200 g. Molasses or Jaggery in 2 litres of water across the field to attract the adult fruit flies.

Livestock and dairy

  • Deworming of all the adult stock with broad spectrum antihelmintic, Albendazole (Dose: 10 mg/ kg Body weight) during Last week of September.
  • FMD vaccine during month of September.
  • Segregation of animals viz., animals in milk production, Dry, pregnant, non- pregnant and heifers.
  • Feeding regimen is followed as per the production and body weight of the animals.
  • Dry fodder: 7 Kg, Green fodder: 10 -15 kg, concentrate mixture: 2Kg, Mineral mixture: 100 gm (can meet the requirements of an animal producing 5 litres of milk) is the ration to be given.
  • For every additional 2.5 kg milk production for cows provide 1 kg concentrate mixture and buffaloes give 1 kg for every 2 kg milk production.
  • Special care should be taken in case of pregnant and animals in advanced pregnancy and early lactating animals.
  • Breeding animals should be observed morning and evening for heat symptoms.
  • Teaser bull can be employed in the herd for detecting the animals in heat. Feeding of colostrum to the newborn within twelve hours of calving (1/10th of body weight).
  • Provide tender leafy fodder to the calves for early development of Rumen.
  • Calf starter may be given from 3rd day onwards to 2-3 weeks before weaning.
  • Deworming on 14th day, 35th day 56th day and monthly repeated up to six months of age. Later, deworming should be done every six months’ interval (Piperzine adipate: 10mg/kg body weight, Albendazole: 7.5 to 10 mg/kg body weight).
  • After attaining the age of six months, FMD vaccine is to be given during September.

Sheep and Goat

  • Rotational deworming at quarterly interval is advised.
  • PPR vaccine during the month of September yearly once both in sheep and goats.
  • Extensive and semi-intensive system of rearing is practiced in Telangana state.
  • Green fodder may be given as per the availability.
  • Flushing must be followed to improve lambing rate in the flock (Flushing is feeding 150 to 200 gm of concentrate mixture to breedable population two weeks before breeding season.
  • For every 20 breedable ewes on breeding Ram should be provided in the flock.
  • Naval dressing with povidine/ Betadine immediately after birth.
  • Lambs must be accessible to the mother for feeding colostrum within twelve hours of lambing.
  • Antibiotic treatment during change of weather.

Poultry

  • In commercial poultry farms, farmers should follow the breed specific regimens advised by the breeder from time to time for both broilers and layers.
  • For backyard poultry Varieties like Rajasree, Vanaraja, Giriraja Gramapriya, Sreenidhi etc. are available in Telangana.
  • Those opting for one day old chicks should have facility for rearing ie., poultry shed, waterers, feeders, and well-balanced ration for better growth.
  • Standard vaccination schedule as advised by the agency may be followed.

Fisheries

  • Provide optimal quantity of feed based on biomass calculation to avoid excessive feeding, since cost of feed is the major expenditure in fish culture.
  • Feed should be stored in cool and dry places. Don’t store the feed for long time and also check for any mould formation before using it.
  • Fish feeding rate in water bodies should be at 2-3 % of body weight. Use of aerators or pumping water from bottom to top using motor pumps or disturbing the pond water through boat motor is essential.
  • Application of Hydrogen peroxide at 600 grams per acre to improve DO level
  • Apply Zeolite at 50 kg/ha to prevent the occurrences of Toxic gases (Ammonia and Carbon monoxide) mixed with 20 to 25 Kg sand and broad cast uniformly throughout the pond.
  • Application of water sanitizers [potassium permanganate (400 grams/acre), salt (30 to 60 kg per acre), benzalkonium chloride (1 liter per acre)].
  • Reduce high stocking density
    • Spray Iodine solution (10%) at 1 litre/acre/4 feet depth or Formalin (32%) at 1 litre per acre
  • Use of disinfected and sundried feeding bags.
  • Cleaning of pond dykes from grass
  • Application of Trichlorofon (0.25-0.5 ppm) at 150 ml per acre once a week for 4 weeks through water.
  • Mixing of Ivermectine at 10 grams per ton of fish biomass for 7 days through feed.

Source : ICAR RABI agro-advisory for farmers



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