- Timely Sown Irrigated Conditions: Unnat PBW 343, Unnat PBW 550, PBW 1 Zn, PBW 725, PBW 677, HD 3086, WH 1105, HD 2967, PBW 621, WHD 943 and PDW 291
- Late Sown Irrigated Conditions: PBW 752 and PBW 658
- Time of Sowing: First fortnight of November is the optimum sowing time of wheat crop. However, sowing of long duration varieties can be commenced from the fourth week of October.
- Seed Rate: 45 kg per acre for Unnat PBW 550 and 40 kg for all other varieties.
- For Termite: In termite infested soil, treat the seed with 1 g Cruiser 70 WS (thiamethoxam) or 2 ml Neonix 20 FS (imidacloprid+hexaconazole) or 4 ml Dursban/Ruban/Durmet 20 EC (chlorpyriphos) per kg seed and dry it in shade. Seed treated with Neonix also control smuts of wheat.
- For Loose Smut: Treat 40 kg seed with 13 ml Raxil Easy/Orius 6 FS (tebuconazole) by dissolving in 400 ml water or 120 g Vitavax Power 75 WS (carboxin+tetramethyl thiurum disulphide)
- Seed Inoculation: Inoculate recommended quantity of seed for one acre with 500 g consortium or 250 g each of Azotobacter and Streptomyces (Azo-S) biofertilizer and one litre of water on pucca floor.
Sowing Method and Spacing
- Conventional Sowing: Sow wheat with a seed-cum-fertilizer drill at a depth of 4-6 cm. A spacing of 15-20 cm between the rows gives good yield.
- Bi-directional Sowing: In this method use half the recommended quantities of seed and fertilizer for sowing in one direction and the remaining half in the other direction (across the first direction).
- Raised Bed Sowing: With the help of bed planter, using 30 kg seed per acre, two rows of wheat can be sown 20 cm apart on 37.5 cm wide bed with a 30 cm wide furrow between two beds.
- Zero Tillage Sowing: Wheat can be sown without any preparatory tillage. In weed infested fields, spray 500 ml Gramoxone 24 SL (paraquat) in 200 litres of water per acre before sowing to control weeds.
- Apply 90 kg urea and 55 kg DAP per acre in medium fertility soils. Apply potassium to deficient soils only.
To control of Phalaris minor
- Pre-emergence: Stomp/Dost/Penda/Markpendi/Pendin/ Bunker/Zakiyama 30 EC (pendimethalin) @ 1.5 litre as, Platform 385 SE (pendimethalin + metribuzin) @ 1.0 litre per acre
- Post-emergence: Leader/SF-10/Safal/ Marksulfo 75 WG (sulfosulfuron)@ 13 g per acre
- Post-emergence: Isoproturon 75 WP@ 500g per acre
Control of broadleaf weeds only
- 2, 4-D sodium salt 80 WP@ 250 g, Algrip/Algrip Royal/Markgrip/Makoto 20 WP (metsulfuron)@ 10 g per acre.
- The first irrigation should be relatively light and given after three weeks to October sown crop and after four weeks to the crop sown later.
- Army worm attack usually wheat during March-April, however it is also observed in the month of December in fields having large loads of paddy straw. It damages leaves and ear heads. Spray 400 ml Ekalux (quinalphos) in 80-100 litres of water per acre with handoperated knapsack sprayer or in 30 litres of water with motorized sprayer. For better effectiveness of the insecticide, spraying should be done in the evening when armyworm larvae are more active. This insecticide will also control aphids.
Wheat sowing with Happy Seeder
- The last irrigation to paddy crop should be planned in such a way that there is proper moisture in soil at the time of sowing of wheat with Happy Seeder/Super Seeder.
- Depth of sowing should be between 1.5 to 2.0 inches.
- Use 5-10 kg more seed per acre of wheat more than recommended in case of sowing with Happy Seeder.
- Drill 65 kg DAP/acre at sowing. Apply 40 kg urea/acre before first irrigation and broadcast another dose of 40 kg urea/acre before 2nd irrigation. It is cautioned that in heavy textured soils to avoid delay in urea application due to delay in second irrigation, broadcast 33kg urea/acre before sowing of wheat and the remaining before first irrigation.
- Care should be taken that there is no clogging of seed and fertilizer tubes of Happy Seeder/Super Seeder. Tap the tubes with a stick to remove clogging, if required.
- If pink stem borer/rice ear cutting caterpillar damage is observed in previous paddy crop, avoid sowing wheat in the month of October.
- In case of wheat sown with Happy Seeder, first irrigation should be light and applied at 25-30 days in case of light textured soils and at 30-35 days after sowing in medium to heavy textured soils. In case of wheat sown with Super Seeder, apply irrigation as recommended for wheat cultivated with conventional methods. Apply irrigation after considering rainfall forecast.
- Prefer to irrigate the fields during daytime to maximize predation of insects by birds.
- Regularly monitor wheat crop sown in straw managed fields in the month of November- December to identify the problems related to insect pest, disease, or rodent. Use recommended practices for the management of insect pests, diseases, and rodents.
- Use recommended pre- and post-emergence herbicides for control of weeds in case of crop sown with Super Seeder and only post emergence herbicides for crop sown with Happy Seeder.
- Incorporation of paddy straw or its retention through Happy Seeder for more than three years helps in increasing the wheat productivity and improves soil health. From fourth year onwards, 20 kg urea can be saved per acre.
Rapeseed and Mustard
- Toria: TL 17 and TL 15
- Raya: RCH 1, PHR 126, Giriraj, RLC 3, PBR 357, PBR 97, PBR 91, RLM 619
- Gobhi Sarson: PGSH 1707, GSC 7, GSC 6, Hyola PAC 401, GSL 2, GSL 1
- African sarson: PC 6 and Taramira: TMLC 2
Time of Sowing: The optimum time of sowing for rapeseed and mustard is given below:
|Intercropping of Toria and Gobhi Sarson
||Third week of September
|Raya and African sarson
||Mid October to Mid-November
|Gobhi Sarson and African Sarson by transplanting
||November to Mid-December
Seed Rate and Method of Sowing
- When sown as sole crop, 1.5 kg seed per acre is sufficient for rapeseed-mustard. Seed mixed with soil increases the bulk and thus ensures uniform distribution in the field. The depth of sowing should be 4-5 cm. Toria, raya, African sarson and taramira are sown in 30 cm and gobhi sarson in 45 cm apart rows. For sowing of canola gobhi sarson GSC 6 and Hyola PAC 401 during November, reduce row to row spacing to 30 cm.
Transplanting of Gobhi Sarson and African Sarson
- A successful crop of gobhi sarson or African sarson can be raised by transplanting. For higher yield, transplanting should be done in November.
- Nursery Raising: Sowing of nursery should be undertaken about 60 days for gobhi sarson (GSL 1) and 30 days for canola gobhi sarson and African sarson ahead of the transplanting period. About eight marlas (200 sq. metre) of nursery is sufficient for transplanting one acre. Broadcast uniformly 400 g seed of gobhi sarson or 600 g seed of African sarson.
- Method of transplanting: After applying pre-sowing irrigation, prepare the field well. Draw furrows 45 cm apart for gobhi sarson and 30 cm apart for African sarson. Place one seedling at 10-15 cm distance. Close the furrows and irrigate the field immediately.
- Bed planting: Transplanting of gobhi sarson can also be done on raised beds for higher yield (10-15%) and saving (20-25%) of irrigation water.
- Fertilizer Application: Apply 90 kg urea and 75 kg SSP per acre for Raya, Gobhi sarson and African sarson while 55 kg urea and 50 kg SSP per acre for Toria.
- Weed Control: One hoeing to toria three weeks after sowing and one or two hoeing preferably with improved wheel hand hoe to raya, gobhi sarson, African sarson and taramira are adequate.
- Harvesting and Threshing: Harvest the crop when siliquae turn yellow.
- Early Maturing Varieties: CoPb 92, Co 118, CoJ 85 and CoJ 64
- Mid-Late Maturing Varieties: CoPb 93, CoPb 94, Co 238, CoPb 91 and CoJ 88
Time of Planting
- Mid-February to the end of March is the optimum time for planting sugarcane in the Punjab. Do not plant early maturing varieties after March. Avoid late planting.
- The seed should be free from red-rot, wilt, smut, ratoon-stunting and grassy shoot diseases. Use only the top two-third portion of the selected canes for planting.
- Use 20 thousand three-budded setts or 15 thousand four-budded sets or 12 thousand five-budded setts per acre. In other words, 30- 35 quintal of seed is required for sowing one acre. Due to thick canes, seed rate of Co 118 and CoJ 85 should be kept about 10% higher (on weight basis).
- To improve germination, soak the setts in ethrel solution overnight by dissolving 25 ml of Ethrel 39 SL in 100 liters of water. Alternatively, soak the setts in water for 24 hours before planting.
Spacing and Planting Techniques
- Trench Planting: Plant crop in rows 75 cm apart and 20-25 cm deep trenches. After placing the setts in trenches, cover the setts with 5 cm soil.
- Paired Row Trench Planting: Plant two rows of sugarcane 30 cm apart in 20-25 cm deep trenches.
- Furrow Irrigated Raised Bed Planting (FIRB): Sugarcane can also be planted in standing wheat crop sown by furrow irrigated raised bed (FIRB) planter.
- Sugarcane Cutter Planter: Use two-row tractor operated whole cane cutter planter. The complete sugarcane which is fed by the labour sitting on the machine is cut automatically into pieces before dropping into the furrows.
- Intercropping: Intercrop one row of the recommended varieties of summer moong or summer mash in between two rows of sugarcane to get an additional grain yield of 1.5 to 2 q/acre of summer moong/summer mash. Mentha and okra can also be grown as an intercrop.
- Fertilizer Application: Apply 130 kg urea per acre for plant crop and 195 kg urea per acre for Ratoon.
- Iron deficiency: Spray the crop 2 or 3 times with 1% solution of ferrous sulphate (1 kg ferrous sulphate in 100 litres of water) at weekly intervals soon after the symptoms appear.
Chemical Weed Control
- Pre-emergence application of 800 g per acre Atrataf/Solaro/Masstaf/ Markazine 50 WP (atrazine) or Sencor 70 WP (metribuzin) or Karmex/Klass 80 WP (diuron) in 200 litres of water within 2-3 days of planting effectively controls the broadleaf weeds and annual grasses. For control of hardy weed like Bans Patta, use only Sencor 70 WP or Karmex/Klass 80 WP.
- Irrigation: Hot and dry period during April to June is the most critical period for the growth of sugarcane. During this period, irrigate the crop at 7 to 12 days interval.
- Improved Varieties: BL 43, BL 42 and BL 10
- Time of Sowing: The last week of September to first week of October is the best time of sowing.
- Inoculation: The inoculation of berseem with specific Rhizobium culture will increase the forage yield.
- Seed Rate and Method of Sowing: 8-10 kg seed should be broadcasted in standing water when the weather is calm. For obtaining a high yield of good-quality fodder, mix 750g of mustard seed with the full seed-rate of berseem. Alternatively mix berseem with oats, using 12 kg seed of oats.
- Manganese Deficiency: Spray the crop twice or thrice with 0.5% manganese sulphate solution (1 kg manganese sulphate in 200 litres of water per acre) at weekly intervals on sunny days. Spray the crop after two weeks of cutting.
- Weed Control: Under situations where itsit (Trianthema portulacastrum) is a problem, sow berseem mixed with raya which is fast growing crop and exerts tremendous smothering effect on this weed.
- Irrigation: The first irrigation may be given within 3-5 days in light soils and 6-8 days in heavy soils after sowing. Afterwards it may be applied within 8-10 days during summer and 10-15 days during winter.
- Harvesting: First cutting is ready in about 50 days after sowing and subsequent cuttings at 40 days intervals during winter and 30 days intervals in spring, thus giving 4-6 cuttings in all.
Early maturing varieties: AP-3, Matar Ageta-7, Matar Ageta-6 and Arkel
Main season varieties: Punjab-89 and Mithi Phali
- Sowing and Seed Rate: Sowing from mid-October to mid-November give the best crop in the plains and spacing should be 30×7.5 cm for early and 30×10 cm for main season varieties by inoculating with Rhizobium leguminosarum. Use seed 45 kg for early maturing and 30 kg for main season variety per acre.
- Manures and Fertilizers: Apply 8 tonnes of farmyard manure, 20 kg of N (45 kg Urea) and 25 kg P2O5 (155 kg Superphosphate) per acre before sowing.
- Weed Control: For chemical weed control use Stomp 30 EC (pendimethalin) @1.0 litre per acre within 2 days of sowing.
Early Varieties: Kufri Surya, Kufri Pukhraj, Kufri Ashoka, Kufri Chandramukhi,
Mid-Season Varieties: Kufri Pushkar, Kufri Bahar, Kufri Jyoti
Late Varieties: Kufri Badshah, Kufri Sindhuri
Processing Varieties: Kufri Frysona, Kufri Chipsona-3, Kufri Chipsona-1
- Seed Rate: For autumn sowing 13-18 q/acre seed tubers of 40 50 g weight should be used for planting. If the seed raised from autumn crop is to be used for spring planting, its dormancy should be broken by dipping cut tubers in a solution of 1% Thiourea and 1 ppm Gibberellic Acid (one ml per 100 litres of water) for an hour followed by air drying the treated tuber pieces for 24 hours in thin layers in shade.
- Time of Sowing: The best time for sowing is last week of September to mid-October for the autumn crop and the second fortnight of January for the spring crop.
- Method of Planting: For mechanized planting, the spacing between the rows and tuber should be kept 65×18.5 cm or 75 cm×15 cm respectively depending upon the available machinery.
- Manures and Fertilizers: Twenty tonnes of farmyard manure or green manuring along with 75 kg of N (165 kg of Urea), 25 kg of P2O5 (155 kg of Single Superphosphate) and 25 kg of K2O (40 kg of Muriate of Potash) per acre should be used. Drill all P2O5 and K2O and half N at sowing and the remaining N at the time of earthingup.
- Earthing-up: A double mould board plough or a ridger should be used for earthing up after 25-30 days of sowing.
- Weed Control: Application of paddy straw mulch @24 q/acre immediately after planting. Sencor/Tanoshi 70 WP (metribuzin) @ 200 g as pre-emergence.
Hybrids: CH-27, CH-3, CH-1
Varieties: Punjab Sindhuri, Punjab Tej, Punjab Surkh, Punjab Guchhedar
- Sowing Time: The seed is sown in nursery during end October
to mid November. Transplanting is generally done in FebruaryMarch.
- Seed Rate: Seed rate is 200 g per acre when sown in the nursery. Sow nursery in one marla (25m2) area to transplant one acre. Nursery: To ensure successful growing of healthy seedlings from costly hybrid seed of chilli, nursery should be grown under polyhouse (size 24’ × 13’ × 6’) made of UV stabilized low density polyethylene film of 200 microns (800 guage) thickness.
|Time of sowing under polyhouse
||Time of transplanting
|a) Third week of November
|b) First week of February
||End of April
- Spacing: Thick and stout seedlings perform better than tall seedlings and should be planted on ridges at 75 cm apart with plant to plant spacing of 45 cm.
- Manures and Fertilizers: Apply well–rotten farmyard manure 10-15 tonnes or 6 quintal paddy straw compost per acre for improving the soil health and yield in chilli. The recommended doses of fertilizers are 25 kg of N (55 kg of Urea) and 12 kg of P2O5 (75 kg of Single Superphosphate) and 12 kg of K2O (20 kg of Muriate of Potash) per acre. Whole P2O5 and K2O together with 1/2 N should be drilled at transplanting and the remaining N should be top dressed after first picking. Apply 30 kg N (65 kg urea) per acre to hybrid chilli.
- Growth Regulator: Due to high temperature in May-June dropping of flowers take place. Two foliar sprays of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) at 10-day interval @4g after 45 and 55 days of transplanting to increases the green and red ripe fruit yield of chilli.
- Improved Varieties; Late Season: Pusa Snowball-1, Pusa Snowball K-1
- Sowing and Seed Rate: The best transplanting time is June-July for the early varieties, August to mid-September for the main season varieties and October to first week of November for the late season varieties. The seed rate for main and late season varieties is 250 g per acre, whereas, for early season varieties 500 g seed is required.
- Spacing: For the main-season crop is 45×45 cm. and 45×30 cm for early and late-season crops.
- Manures and Fertilizers: 40 tonnes of farmyard manure, with 50 kg of N (110 kg of Urea), 25 kg of P2O5 (155 kg of Single Superphosphate) and 25 kg of K2O (40 kg of Muriate of Potash) per acre is the optimum fertilizer dose for all these varieties. Apply whole of farmyard manure, P2O5 and K2O and half N before transplanting and the remaining half of N as top-dressing four weeks after transplanting.
- Irrigation: First irrigation should be given just after transplanting. Subsequent irrigations can be given at an interval of 7-8 days during summer and 10-15 days during winter depending upon soil type and weather. The total numbers of irrigations required are 8-12.
Source : ICMR Rabi Agro-Advisory for Farmers