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Tree Pest Management

Insect pests are detrimental to the vigorous growth and health of planting stock which ultimately affect the survival of out planted seedlings in the field. Development of pest management practices is an important priority area in forestry so as to produce healthy seedlings for attaining improved productivity. Timely and proper utilisation of the developed pest management package of practices could keep the pests at an innocuous level and reduce the high cost of containing the pest in outbreak situations and loss of planting material could be avoided. Pest management (in nurseries and plantations) relies mostly on monitoring to detect pest incidences and identify pest population levels. The key tactic is prevention. For this, information on pests and planning to prevent or reduce the pest incidence is required.

Based on the information about the periodicity of incidence, intensity of attack, nature of damage, biology of key pests and the influence of biotic and abiotic factors on pest build up, suitable management measures were standardized for some of the key pests by integrating cultural, mechanical, biological and chemical methods.

The following combinations of strategies are recommended for employing integrated pest management methods for tree pests in forest nurseries.

STRATEGY

METHOD

1 Initiate implementing pest management strategies well before pest incidence. Install light traps. Assessing pest abundance through sampling

Regular monitoring and early detection of pests with the help of Pest Calendar and identifying abundance level to take appropriate measures.

2. Weed clearing, disposal of infested seedlings, hand picking or net collection of pests and destruction, pruning of affected areas. Employing cultural and physical methods to minimize incidence and spread of the pest.
3. Delay pesticide application Allowing build up of natural enemy population.
4. Applying commercially available bacterial, viral, fungal formulations. Applying microbial formulations.
5. Prepare extracts with easily and commonly available plants through cost effective methods and apply. Applying effective plant based extracts to minimize pest incidence and spread.
6. Host plant resistance Identification and utilization of pest resistant/tolerant candidates.
57. Applying need based safe and less persistent insecticides. Pesticide application

Pest Calendar which documents various pests and their natural enemies will help in taking various prophylactic measures for management of insect pests.

IPM Measures For Key Pests Of Trees In Nursery

For insect pests of Tectona grandis

Hyblaea puera and Eutectona machaeralis

INSECTS / 50 SEEDLINGS

LEVEL

MANAGEMENT METHODS

Nil

0

Prophylactic: Regular monitoring throughout the raising period particularly soon after the monsoon rains. Install light traps to monitor and trap adult moths of H. puera.

< 6

LOW

Mechanical: Leaves folded at the margins can be located and H. puera larva can be plucked every 10 days and destroyed. Spray of Neem oil or Pungam oil emulsion can be done 15-20 days interval to deter the caterpillars.

> 6 but < 12

MEDIUM

Chemical: 0.05% monocrotophos or 0.076% dicholrvos can be sprayed.

> 12

HIGH

Chemical: As above.

IPM for insect pests of Casuarina

Icerya purchasi

INSECTS / 50 SEEDLINGS

LEVEL

MANAGEMENT METHODS

Nil

0

Prophylactic: Regular monitoring throughout the raising period. Apply 12 % neem oil every 10-15 days interval.

< 6 LOW Mechanical: During low level infestations the scales can be scrapped off manually with a pair of sticks.
Chemical: Spray of 0.06% dimethoate or 0.05% methyl demeton can control the pest.
> 6 but < 12 MEDIUM Chemical: As above.
> 12 HIGH Chemical:As above.

Ferrisia virgata

INSECTS / 50 SEEDLINGS

LEVEL

MANAGEMENT METHODS

Nil

0

Prophylactic: Regular monitoring throughout the raising period. Apply 12 % neem oil every 10-15 days interval.

< 6 LOW Mechanical: During low level infestations the scales can be scrapped off manually with a pair of sticks.
Chemical: Spray of 0.06% dimethoate or 0.05% methyl demeton can control the pest.
> 6 but < 12 MEDIUM Chemical: As above.
> 12 HIGH Chemical: As above.

IPM for insect pests of Melia dubia

Red spider mite - Tetranychus urticae

INSECTS / 50 SEEDLINGS

LEVEL

MANAGEMENT METHODS

Nil

0

 

< 6 LOW Mechanical: Infested leaves can be hand plucked and destroyed if the pest is at low to medium level.
Chemical: Application of 12 % Neem oil emulsion pointed towards the under side of the leaves can reduce the population level. 2.5 ml of Dicofol per liter of water can be applied during severe infestation. Application of Propargate 0.1 ml/lit of water can also control the mites.
> 6 but < 12 MEDIUM Chemical: As above.
> 12 HIGH Chemical: As above.

Ascotis selenaria (Lepidoptera:Geometridae)

INSECTS / 50 SEEDLINGS

LEVEL

MANAGEMENT METHODS

Nil

0

 

< 6 LOW Mechanical: Adult moths are attracted to light. Install Light traps with white lights soon after the rains to trap the adult.Prosophis trees are most preferred host.Lopping the branches or elimination of Prosophis trees from the vicinity nursery can control the incidence of Ascortis.
Chemical:0.05% Monocrotophos or 0.076% Dichlorvos.
> 6 but < 12 MEDIUM Chemical: As above.
> 12 HIGH Chemical: As above.

Ferrisia virgata (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

INSECTS / 50 SEEDLINGS

LEVEL

MANAGEMENT METHODS

Nil

0

 

< 6 LOW Mechanical: During low level infestations the scales can be scrapped off manually with a pair of sticks.Application of Neem oil, tobacco extract directed towards the underside of the leaves controlled the scales.
Chemical:Spray of 0.06% dimethoate or 0.05% methyl demeton can control the pest.
> 6 but < 12 MEDIUM Chemical:As above.
> 12 HIGH Chemical: As above.

Thrips

INSECTS / 50 SEEDLINGS

LEVEL

MANAGEMENT METHODS

Nil

0

Prophylactic: Regular monitoring throughout the raising period. Apply 5% NSKE every 10-15 days interval. Bed arrangement alternatively with other species can be tried to reduce the spread of the pest.

< 6 LOW Chemical:Suitable microbial formulations of Verticillium lecanii can be applied to bring down the population.0.06% dimethoate or 0.01% imidacloprid or 0.076% Dicholrvos can be sprayed.
> 6 but < 12 MEDIUM Chemical: As above.
> 12 HIGH Chemical: As above.

IPM for insect pests of Ailanthus excelsa

Eligma narcisus

INSECTS / 50 SEEDLINGS

LEVEL

MANAGEMENT METHODS

Nil

0

Prophylactic: Light traps can be installed to monitor adult insects. A. malabaricus and A. triphysa trees in the vicinity should be monitored since they act as alternate hosts and sustain nucleus populations and treatments like pesticide application or lopping of branches can done to reduce pest population .

< 6 LOW Mechanical: Hand picking and destruction of larva by immersing in a mixture water and kerosene at low level incidence of the pest. Pupal cases attached to the seedling stems can be detached and crushed.
> 6 but < 12 MEDIUM Chemical: 5% tobacco extract and 2% pungam oil can be sprayed alternatively in a gap of 15 -20 days. Suitable microbial formulations of Beauveria bassiana can be to bring down the population.
> 12 HIGH Chemical: 0.05% Monocrotophos spray or 0.076% Dicholrvos.

Atteva fabricella

INSECTS / 50 SEEDLINGS

LEVEL

MANAGEMENT METHODS

Nil

0

Prophylactic:Light traps can be installed to monitor adult insects.

< 6 LOW Mechanical:Infested shoot tips can be easily located and larvae can be hand picked and destroyed. Pupal cases attached to dry apical leaves can be collected and crushed.
> 6 but < 12 MEDIUM Chemical: 0.05% Monocrotophos spray or 0.076% Dicholrvos Suitable microbial formulations of Beauveria bassiana can be applied to bring down the population.
> 12 HIGH Chemical: 0.05% Monocrotophos spray or 0.076% Dicholrvos.

IPM for Common and miscellaneous pests

INSECTS / 50 SEEDLINGS

LEVEL

MANAGEMENT METHODS

Nil

0

Prophylactic: Regular monitoring and weeding of nursery.

< 6 LOW Mechanical:Sweep net collection of beetles and grass hoppers should be done every week. Spray of Neem oil or Pungam oil emulsion can be done every 10 days to deter the insects.
> 6 but < 12 MEDIUM Chemical: 0.05% monocrotophos or 0.076% dicholrvos can be sprayed.
> 12 HIGH Chemical: As above

Source: Transfer of Tree Cultivation Technologies to Krishi Vigyan Kendras - Publication by Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding, Coimbatore.



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