Colour: Gaolao animals are white or light grey. Males are generally grey over the neck
Horn Shape & Size :Horns are short and stumpy, blunt at the points and curve slightly backward
Visible Characteristic: Head markedly long and narrow tapering towards muzzle. Forehead recedes at the top giving a slightly convex appearance. Eyes almond shaped and placed slightly at angles.
Nari is dual purpose breed of cattle known as “Sirohi”.
Coat colour varies from white or greyish white in colour in majority of animals and bulls are either white, greyish white or black.
Body is medium in size.
Horns are spirally curved & outward/ forward in orientation. Size: Male- 55.56, Female- 51.68 cm. Horns of males are mostly forwards in orientation (59%) whereas, the females has the horns mostly oriented outwards. Generally wide-spread, long, and thick at bottom and pointed at tips.
Forehead is broad and slightly concave in majority of cases
Tharparkar (named after the Thar Desert in Rajasthan) is a dual purpose and disease resistant cattle breed. The breed is also known as “White Sindhi”, “Grey Sindhi” and “Thari” as per the place of its actual origin (Sind, Pakistan).
Animals are white or light grey.
Face is and extremities are of a darker shade than the body. These animals have convex forehead. In bulls neck, hump, and fore and hind quarters are also dark.
Horns are set well apart curving gradually upward and outward in the same line as that of the poll, with blunt points inclined inward, moderatly thick at the base
Belahi breed of cattle are also known as Morni/ Desi.
Colour: Red the face and lower abdomen and feet are White in colour with black muzzle.
Horn Shape &Size :Curved upward and inward , sickle shaped.
Characteristic: Medium sized strong dual type, and migratory animal of lower Himalayas. White face a long with some regions of Hump , neck, and dewlap are white. In males, Hump and neck region are dark in colour irrespective of coat colour.
Binjharpuri, also known as “Deshi”, is a breed of cattle found in Jajpur, Kendrapara and Bhadrak districts of Odisha, maintained for milk, draught and manure.
Colour: White. Some animals are Grey, Black or Brown in Colour.
Horn Shape & Size: Curved upward and inward.
Average size in Male: 21.17±2.86, Female: 12.70±1.31cm
Visible Characteristic: Medium sized, strong dual type animal. Hump, neck, and some region of face and back are black in colour irrespective of coat colour in males
Nashik, Ahmadnagar (Akola taluka of Ahmadnagar district, Sinner and Igatpuritaluka of Nashik districts) Generally these animals are found near the hilly tract where forest is available in the ranges of Sahyadri.
Colour : Dangi cattle have distinct white coat colour with red or black spots distributed unevenly over the body
Horn Shape & Size :Horns are short (12-15 cm) and thick with lateral pointing tips Animals with inward and also with downward pointing horn tips are also available in sizable numbers
Visible Characteristic: Uneven distribution of black or red spots over the body. Forehead is slightly protruding
Bhojpur district of Bihar, Varanasi, Mirzapur, Ghazipur, Ballia districts of Uttar Pradesh.
Coat colour is complete white (Dhawar), Grey (Sokan).
Horns are medium sized. Emerges from side of the poll behind and above eyes in outward and curving upwards and inwards ending with pointed tips.
Forehead is Prominent, straight and broad with shallow groove in the middle. Eyelids, muzzle, hooves and tail switch are generally black.
Colour :Mainly White sometimes Grey
Horn Shape & Size: Curved upward and inward. Some animals have straight horns.
Male: 8.72±1.54, Female: 7.47±1.67cm
Visible Characteristic: Small sized, strong and draft type animal. Small head with forehead being flat, broad and depressed in between the eyes
Lakhimi is dual purpose breed of cattle is found in entire state of Assam.
Brown & Grey coat colour. Animals are small sized, horned and have relatively short legs. Coat colour is variable mainly brown and grey. Hump is medium in size and the backline is slightly curved. Udder is small and bowel shaped.
Colour: black with light shades of fawn on thigh and Shoulder region
Horn Shape &Size: Generally small and straight. Outward, upward and in ward
Visible Characteristic: Gidda means dwarf and Malnad means a place receiving heavy rain fall. They are small in size with compact body frame weigh in garound 80-120 Kg. Tail switch - black, hump - small, udder small and bowl shaped.
Colour: Malvi cattle are grey- darker in males, with neck, shoulders, hump and quarters almost black. Cows and bullocks become nearly pure white with age
Horn Shape & Size: Strong and pointed, emerge from the outer angle of the poll in an outward and up ward direction. Average Size of 20-25 cm in length
Visible Characteristic: Strong well-built whitish grey animal with lyre shaped strong and pointed horns
Colour: The animals are usually brown with white patches Allover the body, but animals having completely brown, or black coat with white patches are often encountered. The lower body parts are generally lighter in colour as compared to the rest of body.
Horn Shape & Size: Horns are curving out ward, upward and inward. Horns are short to medium in size.
Visible Characteristic: Body colour and horns type
Colour: The colour is uniform deep dark red, but varations From adullred to almost brown are also found. Bulls as a rule areas hade darker than cows.
Horn Shape & Size: Horns are evenly curved and medium sized.
Visible Characteristic : Body colour and horns type.
Shweta Kapila breed of cattle is also known as “Gaunthi/Gavthi dhavi”.
Coat colour is white.
Horns are straight and maybe slightly curved upward and outward. Size: 20-27cm.
White colour extends from muzzle to tail switch including eyelashes and muzzle (whitish brown).
Short to medium statured animal with straight face and small to medium hump.
Coat colour is black or brown, sometimes white patches on face and body.
Medium in size, hardy, well-built and docile.
Fore-head is small and straight. Backline is uneven, slopes behind the small hump, and rises to peak between hipbones and then drops sharply to the tail head
Horns are curved outward and upward. Short and stumpy
Vechur is one of the dwarf cattle breeds of India, with an average length of 124 cm and height of 87 cm, it is considered to the smallest cattle breed in the world. It is known by the name of a place Vechur - a small place by the side of Vembanad lake near Vaikam in Kottayam district of South Kerala.
Colour: Animals are light red, black or fawn and white
Horn Shape & Size: Horns are small, thin curving forward and downward. In some cases they are extremely small and are hardly visible.
Visible Characteristic: Extremely small sized animal
Exotic dairy breeds of cattle
It is the smallest of the dairy types of cattle developed on island of Jersey, U.K.
In India this breed has acclimatized well and is widely used in cross breeding with indigenous cows.
The typical colour of Jersey cattle is reddish fawn.
Dished fore head and compact and angular body.
These are economical producers of milk with 5.3% fat and 15% SNF.
2. Holstein Friesian
This breed was developed in the northern parts of Netherlands, especially in the province of Friesland.
They are ruggedly built and they possess large udder.
They are the largest dairy breed and mature cows weigh as much as 700kg.
They have typical marking of black and white that make them easily distinguishable.
The average production of cow is 6000 to 7000 kgs per lactation. However, the fat content in their milk is rather low (3.45 per cent).
3. Brown Swiss
The mountainous region of Switzerland is the place of origin of Brown Swiss breed.
It is famous in its home tract for its rugged nature and good milk production.
The Karan Swiss is the excellent crossbred cattle obtained by crossing this breed with recognized Indian breeds of cattle.
4. Red Dane
The typical body colour of this Danish breed is red, reddish brown or even dark brown.
It is also a heavy breed; mature males weighing up to 950 kgs and mature female weigh 600 kgs.
The lactation yield of Red Dane cattle varies from 3000 to 4000 kgs with a fat content of 4 per cent and above.
Origin Ayrshire in Scotland is considered as most beautiful dairy breed. These are very active animals but hard to manage.
They do not produce as much milk or butter fat (only 4%) as some of the other dairy breeds.
The breed was also known as Dunlop cattle or Cunningham cattle.
Originated from Small island of Guernsey (France).
The milk has a golden colour due to an exceptionally high content of beta carotene which may help to reduce the risks of certain cancers.
The milk also has a high butterfat content of 5% and a high protein content of 3.7%.
Guernsey cows produce around 6000 litres per cow per annum.
The Guernsey cow has many notable advantages for the dairy farmer over other breeds includes high efficiency of milk production, low incidence of calving difficulty and longevity.
Indigenous buffalo breeds
It is the most important breed of buffaloes whose home is Rohtak, Hisar and Jind of Haryana, Nabha and Patiala districts of Punjab and southern parts of Delhi state.
This is otherwise called asDelhi, Kundi and Kali.
The colour is usually jet black with white markings on tail and face and extremities sometimes found.
The tightly curved horn is an important character of this breed.
The buffalo cows of this breed are one of the most efficient milk and butter fat producers in India.
Butter fat content is 7%. Average lactation yield is varying from 1500-2500 kgs and the average milk yield is 6.8 kgs /day.
It is also used for the grading up of inferior local buffaloes.
The breeding tract of this breed is Kaira and Baroda district of Gujarat.
Coat colour varies from rusty brown to silver-grey. Skin is black or brown.
The horns are sickle shaped, moderately long and flat.
The peculiarity of the breed is two white collars, one round the jaw and the other at the brisket.
The milk yield ranges from 900 to 1300 kgs.
The peculiarity of this breed is very high fat percentage in milk (8-12per cent).
The breeding tract of this breed is Gir forests, Kutch and Jamnagar districts of Gujarat.
The horns are heavy, inclined to droop at each side of the neck and then turning up at point (drooping horns).
The average milk yield is 100 to 1200 kgs.
The bullocks are heavy and used for ploughing and carting.
These animals are mostly maintained by traditional breeders called Maldharis, who are nomads.
Home tract of this breed is Agra and Etawah district of Uttar Pradesh and Gwalior district of Madhya Pradesh.
The body is usually light or copper coloured is a peculiarity of this breed. Eye lids are generally copper or light brown colour.
Two white lines ‘Chevron’ are present at the lower side of the neck similar to that of Surti buffaloes.
The average milk yield is 800 to 1000 kgs.
The bullocks are good draught animal with high heat tolerance.
The fat content varies from 6 to 12.5 per cent. This breed is an efficient converter of coarse feed into butterfat and is known for its high butter fat content.
5. Nili Ravi
This breed is found in Sutlej valley in Ferozpur district of Punjab and in the Sahiwal district of Pakistan. (Bred around Ravi river).
The peculiarity of the breed is the wall eyes.
The milk yield is 1500-1850 kgs per lactation.
The intercalving period is 500-550 days and age at first calving is 45-50 months.
Mehsana is a dairy breed of buffalo found in Mehsana town in Gujarat and adjoining Maharashtra state.
The breed is supposed to have been evolved out of crossbreeding between the Surti and the Murrah.
The milk yield is 1200-1500 kgs. The breed is supposed to have good persistency.
The intercalving period ranges between 450-550 days.
The breeding tract of this breed is Nagpur, Akola and Amrawati districts of Maharashtra.
These are black coloured animal with white patches on face, legs and tail. This is also called as Elitchpuri or Barari.
The horns are long, flat and curved, bending backward on each side of the back. (Sward shaped horns).
The age at first calving is 45-50 months with an intercalving period of 450-550 days.
Toda breed of buffaloes is named after an ancient tribe, Toda of Nilgiris of south India.
The predominate coat colours are fawn and ash-grey.
These buffaloes are quite distinct from other breeds and are indigenous to Nilgiris hills.
Thick hair coat is found all over the body.
They are gregarious in nature.
Colour: Mainly Black, some times Copper colour
Horn Shape & Size : Curved. Medium to large, heavy with 24 to 30cm diameter in adult animals
Visible Characteristic : Horns are vertical and upward in direction with inverted double/single coiling
These buffaloes have proportionate and medium built body and are mostly brown or black in colour. Horns are medium sized; mostly curved to form a big loop.
Gurdaspur, Hoshiarpur, Rupnagar and SAS Nagar (Mohali) districts of Punjab and Kangra and Chamba districts of Himachal Pradesh
Colour: Coat colour is usually a mix of black and grey, Some times grey
Horn Shape & Size: Horizontal going backwards, upward, and inward, Curved to make half circle appearance. About 50 cm long
Visible Characteristic: Muzzle, eyelids, tail and hoofs are black. Long horns. Head convex, udder round and medium in size. Tail extends below hock
Luit is a medium sized black coloured buffalo with compact body and strong built up.
Forehead is broad with conical face and wide muzzle. Eyes are prominent.
Horns are broad at base, curved upward to form a semi circle and taper to a narrow tip.
Light white stockings up to the knee are present in both fore and hind legs.
Tail is short reaching up to the hocks.
Udder is bowl shaped and small in size.
Colour: Greyish black to jet black. Some animals have white Marking son forehead and lower parts of the limbs
Horn Shape & Size: Horns are parallel to the neck, reaching up to shoulder but never beyond shoulder blade. Medium in length
Visible Characteristic: Length of horns differentiates these buffaloes from Pandharpuri buffaloes. Horns reach up to the shoulder unlike in Pandharpuri buffaloes where these may reach up to pin bones some time
Colour: Usually black but varies from light to deep black. White markings are found on fore head, legs and tail in few animals
Horn Shape &Size: Horns are very long and extend beyond shoulder blade, some time suptopin bones. These are of three types i.e.1. Bharkand- curving back ward and usually twisted.2.Toki- curving back ward, upward and usually twisted out ward.3. Meti- flat running down
Visible Characteristic: Very long horns. Nasal bone is very prominent ,long and straight