Breeds of pigs
The indigenous pig has been the basis used for pig production for a long period of time. It is small in size. Improved breeds are now being used for grading up the form the basis for pig production in the rural areas.
The imported pig breeds reared in India are as follows
Large white Yorkshire
- Most extensively used exotic breed in India
- Body colour is solid white with occasional black – pigmented spots
- Erect ears, snout of medium lengths and dished face
- Excellent breed for the purpose of cross breeding
- Prolific breeds
- Mature boar 300-400 k.g
- Mature sow 230-320 kg
- White with black skin spot
- Long body, large drooping ears and long snout
- Prolific breeding and efficient in utilizing feed
- Carcass quality equal to Yorkshire
- Excellent breed for crossbreeding
- Mature boars weigh 270-360 kg
- Mature sow weighs 200-320 kg
Middle white Yorkshire
- Used in some areas in India
- Grows rapidly gives good dressing percentage
- Not so prolific as large white Yorkshire
- Males 250-340 kg
- Females 180-270 kg
- Colour: Black, star shaped white patches at forehead and sometime shock joint
- Visible Characteristic : Long tapering snout, partially white at nostril,long bristle on midline but uniform in other places, short ears, Top line-Straight in male, concavein female.
- The Agonda pig, which underwent purification in the Old Goa complex under laboratory conditions, has a capacity to adapt to hot and humid climate. “It comes from a pure local breed, has high resistance to disease, low fat content, which people prefer in meat and early sexual maturity,”
- Colour: Black,Fewanimalswith white patches on leg and face
- Visible Characteristic: Small bodysize, medium and rough bristle,slightlyconcavetop line,well adapted to local coastal environment.
- The Native Naga pig, or tenyi vo as it is called locally, is found in the areas of the districts of Chakesang, Mao, Tuensang and Angami in Nagaland, in the extreme northeastern corner of India, along the border with Myanmar. The name tenyi vo literally translates as “pig from Angami.”
- Colour: Black
- Visible Characteristic: These are potbellied animals with sagging back and pendulous belly touching the ground in females, straight tail ending with white swite marking reaching the hock joint. White stocking, white markings
- Nicobari pigs are semi-feral in nature and no systematic or scientific management is followed by the tribes.As such, tribals were not aware much about the farming system and the pigs were reared under free-range system. Generally, pigs are not reared for commercial purposes.
- Colour: Black,grey, brown, blakish brown & fawn skin colour.
- Visible Characteristic: Marked bristle crest(mane) on the back extending from mid head/shoulder to base of the tail, facial profic varied from flat to concave. No curling is the characteristic feature of the tail. They are fast runner.
- Colour:These are black in colour.
- Visible Characteristic: Top line is straight with long bristles extneding up to thoraco-lumber area.
- Colour: Black with white spot on forehead, white patches on belly and white boots. Long bristles on mid-line are characteristics of the Zovawk pig.
- Visible Characteristic: Back: Concave top line is also characteristics of the Zovawk pig. Pot belly
- Colour: These are black colored medium-sized pigs with a flat belly, angular body, and long straight snout.
- Visible Characteristic: Legs below the hock joint are white. Thick line of hairs is present from neck to shoulders. Head is elongated with triangular face and short leaf-shaped vertically erected ears.
- Purnea is a black colored medium sized pig found in Purnea andKatihar districts of Biharand adjoining areas of Sahibganj district of Jharkhand. These pigs havecompact body and pot belly. However, in few animals, white spots at the lower limbs are also seen. Thick line of bristle is present on topline from neck to shoulders giving the animal a wild look. Animals are characterized with round face; short conical and erect ears;and small, thick and slightly concave snout. Skin is thick with neck folds in mature animals. Adult body weight varies from 41 to 50kg. Litter size at birth varies from 4 to 6. These pigs are ferocious in nature.Population size is approximately 1,00,000 – 1,20,000.
- Colour: Black
- Visible Characteristic: These pigs have compact body and pot belly. However, in few animals, white spots at the lower limbs are also seen. Thick line of bristle is present on topline from neck to shoulders giving the animal a wild look. Animals are characterized with round face; short conical and erect ears;and small, thick and slightly concave snout. Skin is thick with neck folds in mature animals
Breeds for North East India
Pig farming is very important component in North East India. Out of total pig population in India, 28% are grown in this region. Following are the commonly grown breeds. Good quality breeds are available at ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Barapani – 793 103, Meghalaya.
Large White Yorkshire
Ghungroo an indigenous strain of pig first reported from North Bengal is popular among the local people because of high prolificacy and ability to sustain in low input system. This breed/strain produces high quality pork utilizing agricultural byproducts and kitchen wastes. Ghungroo are mostly black coloured with typical 'Bull dog' face appearance, with a litter size of 6-12 piglets, individually weigh about 1.0 kg at birth and 7.0 – 10.0 kg at weaning. Both sexes are very much docile and easy to handle. In the breeding tract they are maintained under scavenging system and mainly act as insurance to the rainfed agriculture.
At National Research Centre on Pig, Rani, Guwahati, Ghungroo pigs are being maintained under intensive system of rearing with standard breeding, feeding and managemental system. Their evaluation for genetic potential for use in future breeding programmes is in progress and this indigenous strain is performing very well in terms of productive and reproductive efficiency. Some of the selected sows have delivered litter size of 17 piglets at birth as compared to the other indigenous strains of pigs maintained at the Institute farm.
Source : Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying