Baramulla district is one of the 20 districts in the Indian Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir. Baramulla city is the administrative headquarters of the district. The district is situated at 34.1980° N Longitude and 74.3636° E Latitude, extending over an area of 4190 km², comprises of 524 villages (Census Villages). The town is located on the either banks of river Jehlum, about 55 Kms away from the capital city of Srinagar.
The city of Baramulla, from which the district derives its name, was founded by Raja Bhimsina in 2306 BC. The city held the position of a gate-way to the valley as it was located on the route to the Valley from Muzaffarabad, now in POK, and Rawalpindi, now in Pakistan.
As such, a number of prominent visitors have been to Baramulla. These include the famous Chinese visitor Heiun T’Sang and Moorcraft, the British historian. Mughal Emperors had special fascination for Baramulla. Being the gateway of the valley, it was a halting station for them during their visits to the Valley. In 1508 AD, Emperor Akbar who entered the Valley via Pakhil spent a few days at Baramulla and according to “Tarikh-e-Hassan” the city during Akbar’s stay, had been decorated like a bride. Jahangir also stayed at Baramulla during his visit to Kashmir in 1620 AD.
In the 15th century, Baramulla became important to Muslims, as the famous Muslim saint Syed Janbaz Wali, who visited the valley along with his companions in 1421 AD, chose Baramulla as the centre of his mission, and after his death he was buried there. His shrine attracts pilgrims from all over the Valley. In 1894 AD, the sixth Sikh Guru Shri Hargobind visited the city. Baramulla thus became an abode of Hindus, Muslims, Buddhists and Sikhs living in harmony and contributing to a rich composite culture.
Baramulla is the largest producer of Horticulture products in the UT. There are vast apple orchards in the district. World-class apples are grown here.
Baramulla has a Rabbit Farm at Palhallan, Pattan, one of the only two rabbit farms in Northern India. Another one is in Himachal Pradesh.
Baramulla has a Silk Worm breeding unit at Mir Gund, Pattan.
The district has three state owned powerhouses, viz., Lower Jehlum Hydel Project at Gantamulla, Mohra Power House and Asthan Nallah. 480 MW, NHPC owned Uri Civil Hydel Power Project is built on river Jehlum at Uri and its II Phase(220 MWs) is under execution.
According to the 2011 census, Baramulla district has a population of 1,008,039. Of the total population, 534,733 (53.05%) were males and 473,306 (46.95%) were females, the sex ratio being 885 females for every 1,000 males, a decrease from 905 in 2001 census, and much lower than the national average of 940. The sex ratio for children in 0 to 6 year age group was even less at 866. The district has a population density of 305 inhabitants per square kilometre. Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 20.34%. Baramula has a literacy rate of 66.93% with male literacy 77.35% and female literacy 55.01%.
Baramulla town is the largest town in the district and the fourth most populous town in the state with a population of 1,67,986 as per 2011 census.