India Enterprise Architecture (IndEA) is a way to establish Unity in Diversity in the domain of e-Governance. It is a framework that enables the development and implementation of Enterprise Architectures independently and in parallel by all governments and their agencies across India, conforming to the same models and standards. It enables planned development through architecture thinking.
IndEA has been notified as a e-Governance standard by the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) in October 2018.
To establish best-in-class architectural governance, processes and practices with optimal utilization of ICT infrastructure and applications to offer ONE Government experience to the citizens and businesses.
The primary purpose of IndEA is to help state governments, ministries and departments in the governments at various levels to adopt a structured approach for developing their enterprise architecture. This is necessitated due to inconsistent maturity levels that exist in various government entities with respect to architecture driven approach to digital governance, yet mandated to adopt Digital India. Therefore, IndEA is expected to fill a clear gap in current capability and drive its adoption in an effective manner to build a digital economy.
IndEA is a collection of architecture reference models. Reference models are documented best practices for solutions delivery teams to make effective design and technology choices. The purpose of the reference models is to increase adoption of standards, speed up service design and delivery, and advance towards the target state architecture. IndEA aims at:
IndEA is intended for the following groups:
IndEA provides a generic framework, (based on The Open Group Architecture Framework -TOGAF) comprising of a set of architecture reference models, which can be converted into a Whole-of-Government Architecture for India, Ministries, States, Govt. Agencies etc. The IndEA framework is based on federated architecture approach and recognizes the need to accommodate both greenfield (new) and brownfield (existing / legacy) eGovernance initiatives.
The framework is based on 36 principles and 08 reference models supported by a globally acceptable standards.
Reference models of IndEA
In line with other globally known architectural frameworks, the structure of IndEA consists of a number of Reference Models, each dealing with a specific domain of the Enterprise Architecture.
A Reference Model is an abstract representation of the entities relevant to a domain of the Enterprise Architecture, the inter-relationships among those and the standards to be followed. All the Reference Models follow 3 basic attributes namely, abstraction, standards-base and technology-neutrality.
IndEA framework comprises of 8 Reference Models - Business, Application, Data, Technology, Performance, Security, Integration and Architecture Governance.
Principles of IndEA
An Enterprise Architecture is to be founded on a set of Principles that inform and guide the Architecture Development process. A good set of Principles should satisfy five criteria, namely, Understandable, Robust, Complete, Consistent and Stable. Citizen-centricity, Outcome-focus, Standardization, Reusability and Integration are the key mantrasfollowed while designing IndEA.
|SDG Linkage||Performance Measurement Systems derive from and are linked to Sustainable Development Goals prioritized by the Government.|
|Outcome Orientation||All Performance Measurement Systems are outcome-oriented|
|Identifying Performance Categories through Value-Chain||Performance Measurement Categories must cover the entire value chain such that the KPIs at each step of the service can be monitored and performance optimized.|
|Enable quantitative and qualitative date driven decisions||The PRM must enable quantitative and qualitative data driven decisions through a better analysis of the actual output & outcome.|
|Maximization of benefit||All information Management decision are made to maximize the benefit to Government as a whole.|
|Prioritization of SDG Initiative||Enterprise Architecture efforts focus on the SDG initiatives prioritized by the Government.|
|Integrated Services||Integrated Service that cut across agency-silos are identified, designed and delivered through multiple delivery channels, to realize the vision of ONE Government.|
|Process RE-engineering||Existing processes are re-engineered to eliminate non-value-adds and to make the services citizen-centric / business-centric.|
|Ease of Use||Applications are easy to use, with the underlying technologies being transparent to the users.|
|Sharing & Reusability||All commonly required Applications are abstracted to be built once and deployed across the Whole-of-Government through reuse and sharing. Sharing & Resuability shall be subject to conformance with the principles of Security & privacy.|
|Technology Independence||Application Design is open standards-based and technology-independent.|
|Application Security||Applications are secure by design and developed using secure coding standards and practices.|
Data is an asset that has a specific and measurable value to the Government and is managed accordingly.
Archive and preserve all information (both in raw and aggregated form) exchanged, especially outside the government ecosystem, for future reference and if needed, for resolution of disputes. The Archival and preservations must be in accordance with the applicable regulatory requirements.
|Data-Sharing||Data is shared across the Government, subject to rights and privileges, so as to prevent duplicative sets of data by different agencies. Data Sharing shall be subject to conformance with the principles of Security & Privacy.|
|Data Trustee||Each data set has a trustee accountable for data quality and security.|
|Data Security||Data is protected from loss, unauthorized for data quality and Security.|
|Common Vocabulary||Data is defined consistently throughout all levels of Government, and the definitions are understandable and available to all users.|
|Technology Independent Architecture||Enterprise Architectures are developed in a technology-neutral manner so as to avoid captivity to a specific product or implementation method.|
|Future-Proof Architecture||Enterprise Architectures are suitably designed and developed so as to be future-proof, not requiring frequent revisions with the advent of every new technology.|
|Open Standards||Open Standards are adopted in the design and implementation of all greenfield systems. Legacy systems are incentivized to migrate to open standards, where required.|
|Shared Infrastructure||IT Infrastructure is shared to ensure optimal utilization and effective maintenance.|
|Cloud First||Cloud infrastructure is chosen by default for deployment of applications and on-site option is resorted to only with strong justification.|
|Mobile First||Mobile channels are the mandatory for delivery of all services, among all delivery channels.|
|Availability||The information systems along with the applications and services are available 24 x 7.|
|Openness and Transparency||Government data is made open, barring exceptions, so that external parties can build services.|
|Interoperability||Interoperability is assured through adoption of open standards and open interfaces.|
|Data Portability||Data is easily transferable and usable across jurisdictions, applications and systems.|
|Primary of User Experience||All service interactions are designed with citizens at the core, by providing integrated multi-channel service delivery.|
|Elimination of Digital Divide||Digital public services are available to citizens and users belonging to all groups, and there are no differences and discrimination based on location (rural versus urban), access to technological infrastructure, and physical abilities.|
|Multilingualism||Services are delivered in language/s that are preferred by the consuming populations with the option of multi-lingual support, wherever feasible.|
|Data Integrity||Data is correct, consistent and un-tampered.|
|Data Privacy and Confidentially||Data is shared on a Need-To-Know basis and is collected / accessed / modified only by authorized personnel.|
|Primary of Principles||These principles of enterprise information management apply to all organizations in Government.|
|Discipline||All Stakeholders of EA Governance structure need to follow the discipline of conformance to the principles and standards.|
|Transparency||The architectural decision taken are transparent to all stakeholders.|
|Accountability||Stakeholders, including service providers are accountable for the responsibility assigned to them in the Architecture Development and Implementation, and in strict adherence to these principles.|
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Source : NeGD, MeitY
India Digital Ecosystem Architecture 2.0 or InDEA 2.0 is a framework that enables Governments and private sector enterprises to design IT architectures that can span beyond their organizational boundaries and enable delivery of holistic and integrated services to the customers.
While InDEA 2.0 builds upon the principles and models recommended in India Enterprise Architecture (IndEA 1.0 - 2018), it adopts a radically different approach to architecture development. It addresses the architectural needs of an ecosystem rather than of an enterprise which was the focus of its predecessor.
InDEA 2.0 is a framework that promotes the evolution of digital ecosystems. It consists of a set of principles and architectural patterns that inform, guide, and enable the development of large digital systems, with a focus on the public sector. The following statements define the characteristics of InDEA:
InDEA 2.0 Principles
A large national framework should be based on a set of generic principles, but not prescriptions. InDEA 2.0 propounds a set of 27 principles in 5 categories, namely, ecosystem, architecture, business, technology, and architecture governance. The ‘principle of these principles’ relates to enabling rather than building. Federated architecture, openness in designs, modularity and interoperability are core among the set. Security- and privacy-bydesign, and agile governance are among the other key principles. Upholding the primacy of the principles and adoption by all organizations would produce a multiplier effect and thereby pave the way to realizing the goals of InDEA 2.0.
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