Despite all the best efforts at prevention, children may be born with or develop the following disabilities in early childhood, from the causes which are not yet fully understood or could be prevented.
Types of Disabilities:
According to the The Rights of Persons with Disabilities (RPwD) Act, 2016, enacted on 28.12.2016 and came into force from 19.04.2017, Disability has been defined based on an evolving and dynamic concept. The Act covers the following specified disabilities:-
A condition where a person suffers from any of the following conditions namely:
A person with impairment of visual functioning even after treatment or standard refractive correction but who uses or is potentially capable of using vision for the planning or execution of a task with appropriate assistive device.
A group of non - progressive conditions characterized by abnormal motor control posture resulting from brain insult or injuries occurring in the peri - natal, neo - natal or infant period of development.
Loss of sixty decibels or more in the better ear in the conversational range of frequencies.
Any person who has been cured of leprosy but is suffering from - loss of sensation in hands or feet as well as loss of sensation and paresis in the eye - lid but with no manifest deformity; manifest deformity and paresis but having sufficient mobility in their hands and feet to enable them to engage in normal economic activity; extreme e physical deformity as well as advanced age which prevents him from undertaking any gainful occupation.
Disability of the bones, joint or muscles leading to substantial restriction of the movement of the limbs or a usual form of cerebral palsy. Some common conditions giving raise to locomotor disability could be poliomyelitis, cerebral palsy, amputation, injuries of spine, head, soft tissues, fractures, muscular dystrophies etc.
Any mental disorder other than mental retardation
Affect person’s ability to acquire, process, and/or use either, spoken, read, written or nonverbal information( organization/planning, functional literacy skills, memory, reasoning, problem solving, perceptual skills) or in other words in short - difficulty with language in its various uses ( not always reading).
Missing or defective body part, an amputated limb, paralysis after polio, restricted pulmonary capacity, diabetes, nearsightedness, mental retardation, limited hearing capacity, facial disfigurement or other abnormal condition.
As a result of impairment may involve difficulties in walking, seeing, speaking, hearing, reading, writing, counting, lifting, or taking interest in and making one’s surrounding.
A disability becomes a handicap when it interferes with doing what is expected at a particular time in one’s life.
Refers to a process aimed at enabling persons with disabilities to reach and maintain their optimal physical, sensory, intellectual, psychiatric or social functional levels;
A person suffering from not less than forty percent of any disability as certified by a medical authority.
An institution for the reception, care, protection, with disabilities education, training, rehabilitation or any other service of persons
Note: Various State Governments have also adopted different sets of definitions for example, Government of Tamil Nadu declared one - eyed persons in the same category as blind persons and have extended various concessions
Source: A Handbook for Parents of Children with Disabilities