Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic and progressive disorder of the nervous system that affects your movement. It affects the nerve cells in the brain that produce dopamine-produced by dying neurons. Dopamine is a chemical that sends messages the part of the brain that controls movement and coordination. As Parkinson’s disease is progressive, meaning its symptoms grow worse over time, the amount of dopamine produced in the brain decreases, leaving a person unable to control movements. Parkinson's disease is more common in older people and usually begins around the age of 50.
Though the symptoms appear to be mild or severe or are not frequent, Parkinson’s disease has the following five stages:
The reason for occurrence of this disease is not known. However, there is evidence that Parkinson’s disease maybe inherited.
A number of environmental factors have been associated with an increased risk of Parkinson's including: pesticide exposure, head injuries, and living in the country or farming. Rural environments and the drinking of well water may be risks as they are an indirect measures of exposure to pesticide. Scientists have also suggested that external or internal toxins may selectively destroy the dopaminergic neurons. Other toxins that may be linked to Parkinson's include manganese, carbon disulfide, carbon monoxide.
It is also believed that oxidative stress can also cause Parkinson’s disease. Oxidation is thought to cause damage to tissues, including neurons.
While it is not clear what events cause the abnormal nerve function linked to Parkinson's disease, there are certain conditions and medication that can cause Parkinson's disease-like symptoms. These include:
Most researchers suggest that a combination of these factors may cause the disease.
To date, there is no known cure or prevention for Parkinson’s disease. But, there are many treatment options or surgical procedures or drug therapy that can reduce the effect of Parkinson’s disease.
There is currently no treatment to cure Parkinson's disease, but medications, surgery and multidisciplinary management can provide relief from the symptoms, although none yet that actually reverse the effects of the disease.
Source: Portal Content Team