Glaucoma is a group of disorders in which the pressure of fluid within the eye gradually increases to a level that irreversibly damages the sensitive tissues of the eye, most notably the optic nerve which transmits visual images to the brain.
Anterior chamber is the fluid (aqueous humour) filled front portion of the eye. If the drainage of this fluid from the anterior chamber is restricted, pressure builds up within the eye causing irreversible damage to the optic nerve thereby causing a permanent loss of vision. Individuals over the age of 40 as well as persons with myopia, diabetes, or a family history of glaucoma are at an increased risk of developing glaucoma. Individuals who have sustained eye trauma or use corticosteroids are also at an increased risk.
Most glaucomas remain asymptomatic until advanced stage. Hence periodical check up, especially for those at risk, is necessary to detect glaucoma early. Some individuals, especially if there is a rapid build up of eye pressure, may experience one or more of the following symptoms:
The three basic tests in the detection of glaucoma are:
Glaucoma cannot be cured. Appropriate treatment and regular follow-up can preserve residual vision from further damage. Several drugs are available to reduce fluid formation within the eye or promote their drainage from the eye. For most glaucoma patients, regular use of medications will suffice to control the pressure inside the eye. However, if the pressure control is not satisfactory other modalities like laser or surgery may have to be resorted to.
Source : Arvind Eye care system