By rice field breeding mosquitoes (primarily the Culex tritaeniorhynchus group) that become infected with Japanese encephalitis virus (a flavivirus antigenically related to St. Louis encephalitis virus).
By the bite of mosquitoes infected with the Japanese encephalitis virus.
Mosquitoes become infected by feeding on domestic pigs and wild birds infected with the Japanese encephalitis virus. Infected mosquitoes then transmit the Japanese encephalitis virus to humans and animals during the feeding process. The Japanese encephalitis virus is amplified in the blood systems of domestic pigs and wild birds.
No, Japanese encephalitis virus is NOT transmitted from person-to-person. For example, you cannot get the virus from touching or kissing a person who has the disease, or from a health care worker who has treated someone with the disease.
No. Only domestic pigs and wild birds are carriers of the Japanese encephalitis virus.
Mild infections occur without apparent symptoms other than fever with headache. More severe infection is marked by quick onset, headache, high fever, neck stiffness, stupor, disorientation, coma, tremors, occasional convulsions (especially in infants) and spastic (but rarely flaccid) paralysis.
Usually 5 to 15 days.
Case-fatality rates range from 0.3% to 60%.
Inactivated Mouse Brain-Derived JE Vaccine is available against JE in India. The Vaccine in manufactured at Central Research Institute, Kasauli, Himachal Pradesh.