The country is experiencing a rapid health transition with a rising burden of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) which are emerging as the leading cause of death in India accounting for over 42% of all deaths with considerable loss in potentially productive years (aged 35-64 years) of life. According to a WHO report (2002), cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) will be the largest cause of death and disability in India by 2020. It is estimated that the overall prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, Ischemic Heart Diseases (IHD) and Stroke is 62.47, 159.46, 37.00 and 1.54 respectively per 1000 population of India. According to National Family Health Survey 4 (NFHS-4) 2015-16, in the age group of 15-49 years, 8 per cent of men and 5.8 per cent of women in India have high random blood sugar levels and 13.6 per cent men and 8.8 per cent women are hypertensive. The cost implications of NCDs to society are enormous and run into thousands of crore of rupees that include direct costs to people with illness, their families and indirect costs to society, due to reduced productivity.
Major risk factors for these NCDs are raised blood pressure, cholesterol, tobacco use, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, alcohol consumption, and obesity which are modifiable. The other non-modifiable risk factors such as age, sex and heredity are also associated with the occurrence of NCDs. Hence a majority of cancers and CVDs can be prevented and treated if diagnosed at an early stage.
- Considering the rising burden of NCDs and common risk factors to major Chronic Non –Communicable Diseases, Government of India initiated an integrated National Programme for Prevention and Control of Cancers, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke (NPCDCS) under the National Health Mission.
- The focus of the Programme is on health promotion and prevention, strengthening of infrastructure including human resources, early diagnosis and management and integration with the primary health care system through NCD cells at different levels for optimal operational synergies.
- During the period 2010 - 2012, the programme was implemented in 100 districts across 21 States. The programme at present covers the entire country.
- Health promotion through behavior change with involvement of community, civil society, community based organizations, media etc.
- Outreach Camps for opportunistic screening at all levels in the health care delivery system from sub-centre and above for early detection of diabetes, hypertension and common cancers.
- Management of chronic Non-Communicable diseases, especially Cancer, Diabetes, CVDs and Stroke through early diagnosis, treatment and follow up through setting up of NCD clinics.
- Build capacity at various levels of health care for prevention, early diagnosis, treatment, IEC/BCC, operational research and rehabilitation.
- Provide support for diagnosis and cost effective treatment at primary, secondary and tertiary levels of health care.
- Provide support for development of database of NCDs through a robust Surveillance System and to monitor NCD morbidity, mortality and risk factors.
- Health promotion, Awareness generation and promotion of healthy lifestyle - The focus of health promotion activities will be on
- Increased intake of healthy foods
- Salt reduction
- Increased physical activity/regular exercise
- Avoidance of tobacco and alcohol
- Reduction of obesity
- Stress management
- Awareness about warning signs of cancer etc.
- Regular health check - up
- Screening and early detection - Common cancers (breast, cervical and oral), diabetes and high blood pressure screening of target population (age 30 years and above) will be conducted either through opportunistic and/or camp approach at different levels of health facilities and also in urban slums of large cities.
- Timely, affordable and accurate diagnosis
- Access to affordable treatment
Achievements so far
As on March 2016, the programme is under implementation in all 36 States/UTs. A total of 298 District NCD Cells and 293 District NCD Clinics have been established in the country. Also, there are 103 functional Cardiac Care Units for emergency cardiac care and 64 Day - Care Centres for Cancer care at the District levels in the country.
To access the complete guidelines, click here.
Source : Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
- Operational Guidelines - Prevention, Screening and Control of Non-Communicable diseases