অসমীয়া   বাংলা   बोड़ो   डोगरी   ગુજરાતી   ಕನ್ನಡ   كأشُر   कोंकणी   संथाली   মনিপুরি   नेपाली   ଓରିୟା   ਪੰਜਾਬੀ   संस्कृत   தமிழ்  తెలుగు   ردو

Millets-Natural fortified cereals

What are millets

Millets are a group of small seeded grasses belonging to the family poaceae. They are categorized into major and minor or small millets based on the area occupied for cultivation. Sorghum, bajra, ragi are the three major millets and Foxtail, Barnyard, Kodo, Proso and Little are the five minor millets

Importance of millets

Millets (Sorghum, bajra and small millets) are important food and the fodder crops in semi-arid regions which are gaining importance in countries facing climatic uncertainties, increasing population and malnutrition.These crops are store houses of nutrients and are adapted to wide range of temperatures,moisture-regimes and input conditions. They provide food, feed and fodder to millions of dryland farmers, particularly in developing countries in addition to being the raw material for alcohol and starch production.These crops are primarily grown in agro ecologies subjected to low rainfall and drought. Most such areas are unsuitable for the production of other grains unless irrigation is available. Following is the general information on major and minor millets and their nutritional composition.

Nutritive value of millets

Nutritive value of millets (per 100g)

Crop / Nutrient

Protein (g)

Fat (g)

Fibre (g)

Minerals (g)

Iron (mg)

Calcium (mg)

Phosphorus (mg)

Rice

6.4

0.4

0.2

0.7

1.0

9.0

143

Wheat

11.8

1.5

1.2

1.5

5.3

41

306

Sorghum

10.4

1.9

1.6

1.6

4.1

25

222

Bajra

11.6

5.0

1.2

2.3

8.0

42

296

Finger millet

7.3

1.3

3.6

2.7

3.9

344

283

Foxtail millet

12.3

4.3

8.0

3.3

2.8

31

290

Proso millet

12.5

1.1

2.2

1.9

0.8

14

206

Kodo millet

8.3

1.4

9.0

2.6

0.5

27

188

Little millet

7.7

4.7

7.6

1.5

9.3

17

220

Barnyard millet

6.2

2.2

9.8

4.4

5.0

20

280

General information on Millets

Sorghum

Pearl millet

Finger millet

Foxtail millet

Scientific name

Sorghum bicolor

Pennisetum glaucum (L.)

Eleusine coracana (L.)

Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.

Common name

Sorghum

Pearl millet

Finger millet

Italian millet and setaria

Family

Poaceae

Poaceae

Poaceae

Poaceae

Vernacular name

Jwari, Juara, Jowar, Cholam, Jonna,Jola

Bajri, Bajra, Sajjalu, Kambu,sajje

Marwa, Nagli, Keppai,Ragulu,Ragi Mandia, Mandhuka

Korralu, Kaon Kang Kakum Navane Tenai Kangni

Origin

northeastern Africa

Sahelian Africa

East Africa (Ethiopia)

Central Asia(China)

Ploidy

Diploid (2n = 20)

Diploid (2n = 14)

Allopolyploid, 2n = 4x = 36

Diploid,2n=18

Genome size

~ 700Mbp

~1.79Gb

1,593 Mb

∼490 Mb

Season

Kharif and Rabi

kharif (June–September), summer (February–May), Rabi (November–February)

Kharif and Rabi

Kharif

Major states

Maharashtra Karnataka Madhya Pradesh Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Tamil Nadu

Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh and Haryana

Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Gujarat, West Bengal and Bihar.

A.P., Karnataka, Rajastan, M.P., Chattisgarh

Uses

Food (unleavened bread, Sankati, thin porridge, Pops, Atta, flaking and Biscuits), Feed (Poultry), Fodder, Biofuel

food (leavened and unleavened flat breads and porridges), feed and fodder (dry and green)

roti (unleavened flat breads),

kazhi (finger millet balls), and kanji (thin porridge)

Cooked rice, Kheer, Mudde, Roti, Thin Porridge, Dosa, ,Sattu,Halwa

 

Kodo millet

Barnyard millet

Proso millet

Little millet

Scientific name

Paspalum Scrobiculatum

Echinochloa frumentacea

Panicum miliaceum L

Panicum sumatrense Roth

Common name

Kodo millet

Indian Barnyard millet

Common millet

Little millet

Family

Poaceae

Poaceae

Poaceae

Poaceae

Vernacular name

Kodo, Kodra, Kodon Arikelu, Varagu,Harka

Udalu ,Kuthiraivolly, Sanwa Khira, Shyama, Oodalu

Varigalu, Chena Baragu, Pani, varagu, Baragu, Vari

Samalu, Samai, Kutki, Sava Same, Gajro

Origin

India

India

Central Asia-India

India

Ploidy

Tetraploid,2n=4x=40

Hexapoid,2n=6x=54

2n=4x=36

2n=4x=36

Genome size

Not available

Not Available

 

Not Available

Season

Kharif

Kharif and Rabi

Kharif ((onset of monsoon), summer)

Kharif and Rabi

Major states

M.P., Chattisgarh, T.N., & Maharashtra

Karnataka, M.P.,Uttarakhand,U.P.,North East

Bihar, North East, Maharashtra

 

Karnataka, T.N., A.P., M.P.,Jharkhand, Orissa Maharashtra & Chattisgarh

Uses

Cooked rice

Cooked rice ,Kheer, Roti, Thin Porridge, Halwa

Cooked rice, Kheer, Roti, Thin Porridge, Sattu, Halwa

Cooked rice, Kheer, Thin Porridge, Dosa, ,Sattu , Halwa

Authors

  1. Deepika Cheruku, Indian Institute of Millets Research, Hyderabad-500030
  2. Swarna Ronanki, Indian Institute of Millets Research, Hyderabad-500030
  3. Jinu Jacob, Indian Institute of Millets Research, Hyderabad-500030
  4. Gayatri Bandaru, Indian Institute of oil Seed Research, Hyderabad-500030

References

  1. Karuppasamy, P. (2015). Overview on Millets. Trends in Biosciences, 8(13), 3269-3273.
  2. Malathi D, Varadharaju N, Gurumeenakshi G.(2014) T. Study on nutrient composition of millets and ways to minimize loss during Processing and value addition. Project completion report Submitted to Agricultural Policy Planning, State Planning Commission, Government of Tamil Nadu.
  3. Patil J V, Vilas A Tonapi, and B Dayakar Rao.(2015).Millets improvement and utilization: progress and prospects; In Vilas A Tonapi, B Dayakar Rao,J V Patil Millets-promotion for Food, Feed, Fodder, Nutrient and Environmental Security. Society of Millets Research, 11-127, ICAR-Indian Institute of Milles Research, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500030, India.pp.1-33.
  4. Seetharam A. (2011) Small millets as viable cropsrecentDevelopments, challenges and research gaps.  Emeritus Scientist, Ex Project Project Coordinator (Small Millets), ICAR.
  5. http://millets.res.in/millets_info.php


© 2006–2019 C–DAC.All content appearing on the vikaspedia portal is through collaborative effort of vikaspedia and its partners.We encourage you to use and share the content in a respectful and fair manner. Please leave all source links intact and adhere to applicable copyright and intellectual property guidelines and laws.
English to Hindi Transliterate