In the GST regime, for any intra-state supply, taxes to be paid are the Central GST (CGST), going into the account of the Central Government) and the State/UT GST (SGST, going into the account of the concerned State Government). For any inter-state supply, tax to be paid is Integrated GST (IGST) which will have components of both CGST and SGST. In addition, certain categories of registered persons will be required to pay to the government account Tax Deducted at Source (TDS) and Tax Collected at Source (TCS). In addition, wherever applicable, Interest, Penalty, Fees and any other payment will also be required to be made.
In general, the supplier of goods or services is liable to pay GST. However, in specified cases like imports and other notified supplies, the liability may be cast on the recipient under the reverse charge mechanism. Further, in some notified cases of intra-state supply of services, the liability to pay GST may be cast on e-commerce operators through which such services are supplied. Also Government Departments making payments to vendors above a specified limit [2.5 lakh under one contract as per S.51(1)(d)] are required to deduct tax (TDS) and E-commerce operators are required to collect tax (TCS) on the net value [i.e. aggregate value of taxable supplies of goods and/or services but excluding such value of services on which the operator is made liable to pay GST under Section 9(5) of the CGST Act, 2017] of supplies made through them and deposit it with the Government.
Liability to pay arises at the time of supply of Goods as explained in Section 12 and at the time of supply of services as explained in Section13.
The time is generally the earliest of one of the three events, namely receiving payment, issuance of invoice or completion of supply. Different situations envisaged and different tax points have been explained in the aforesaid sections.
The payment processes under GST Act(s) have the following features:
Payment can be done by the following methods:
Payment of taxes by the normal tax payer is to be done on monthly basis by the 20th of the succeeding month. Cash payments will be first deposited in the Cash Ledger and the tax payer shall debit the ledger while making payment in the monthly returns and shall reflect the relevant debit entry number in his return. As mentioned earlier, payment can also be debited from the Credit Ledger. Payment of taxes for the month of March shall be paid by the 20th of April. Composition tax payers will need to pay tax on quarterly basis.
No, this is not permitted in case of self-assessed liability. In other cases, competent authority has been empowered to extend the time period or allow payment in installments. (Section 80 of the CGST/SGST Act).
In such cases, the return is not considered as a valid return. Section 2(117) defines a valid return to mean a return furnished under sub-section (1) of section 39 on which self-assessed tax has been paid in full. It is only the valid return that would be used for allowing input tax credit (ITC) to the recipient. In other words, unless the supplier has paid the entire self-assessed tax and filed his return and the recipient has filed his return, the ITC of the recipient would not be confirmed.
It is the date of credit to the Government account.
Electronic Ledgers or E-Ledgers are statements of cash and input tax credit in respect of each registered taxpayer. In addition, each taxpayer shall also have an electronic tax liability register. Once a taxpayer is registered on Common Portal (GSTN), two e-ledgers (Cash &Input Tax Credit ledger) and an electronic tax liability register will be automatically opened and displayed on his dash board at all times.
Tax Liability Register will reflect the total tax liability of a taxpayer (after netting) for the particular month.
The cash ledger will reflect all deposits made in cash, and TDS/TCS made on account of the taxpayer. The information will be reflected on real time basis. This ledger can be used for making any payment on account of GST.
Input Tax Credit as self-assessed in monthly returns will be reflected in the ITC Ledger. The credit in this ledger can be used to make payment of TAX ONLY and not other amounts such as interest, penalty, fees etc.
There will be real time two-way linkage between the GSTN and the Core Banking Solution (CBS) of the Bank. CPIN is automatically routed to the Bank via electronic string for verification and receiving payment and a challan identification number (CIN) is automatically sent by the Bank to the Common Portal confirming payment receipt. No manual intervention will be involved in the process by any one including bank cashier or teller or the tax payer.
Yes, a taxpayer can partially fill in the challan form and temporarily “save” the challan for completion at a later stage. A saved challan can be “edited” before finalization. After the tax payer has finalized the challan, he will generate the challan, for use of payment of taxes. The remitter will have option of printing the challan for his record.
No. After logging into GSTN portal for generation of challan, payment particulars have to be fed in by the tax payer or his authorized person. He can save the challan midway for future updation. However once the challan is finalized and CPIN generated, no further changes can be made to it by the taxpayer.
Yes, a challan will be valid for fifteen days after its generation and thereafter it will be purged from the System. However, the tax payer can generate another challan at his convenience.
CPIN stands for Common Portal Identification Number (CPIN) given at the time of generation of challan. It is a 14-digit unique number to identify the challan. As stated above, the CPIN remains valid for a period of 15 days.
CIN stands for Challan Identification Number. It is a 17-digit number that is 14-digit CPIN plus 3-digit Bank Code. CIN is generated by the authorized banks/ Reserve Bank of India (RBI) when payment is actually received by such authorized banks or RBI and credited in the relevant government account held with them. It is an indication that the payment has been realized and credited to the appropriate government account. CIN is communicated by the authorized bank to taxpayer as well as to GSTN.
Section 49(8) prescribes an order of payment where the taxpayer has tax liability beyond the current return period. In such a situation, the order of payment to be followed is: First self-assessed tax and other dues for the previous period; thereafter self-assessed tax and other dues for the current period; and thereafter any other amounts payable including any confirmed demands under section 73 or 74. This sequence has to be mandatorily followed.
The expression “other dues” means interest, penalty, fee or any other amount payable under the Act or the rules made thereunder.
E-FPB stands for Electronic Focal Point Branch. These are branches of authorized banks which are authorized to collect payment of GST. Each authorized bank will nominate only one branch as its E-FPB for pan India Transactions. The E-FPB will have to open accounts under each major head for all governments. Total 38 accounts (one each for CGST, IGST and one each for SGST for each State/UT Govt.) will have to be opened. Any amount received by such E-FPB towards GST will be credited to the appropriate account held by such E- FPB. For NEFT/RTGS Transactions, RBI will act as E-FPB.
TDS stands for Tax Deducted at Source (TDS). As per section 51, this provision is meant for Government and Government undertakings and other notified entities making contractual payments where total value of such supply under a contract exceeds Rs. 2.5 Lakhs to suppliers. While making any payments under such contracts, the concerned Government/authority shall deduct 1% of the total payment made and remit it into the appropriate GST account.
Any amount shown as TDS will be reflected in the electronic cash ledger of the concerned supplier. He can utilize this amount towards discharging his liability towards tax, interest fees and any other amount.
TDS Deductor will account for such TDS in the following ways:
This provision is applicable only for E-Commerce Operator under section 52 of CGST/SGST Act. Every E-Commerce Operator, not being an agent, needs to withhold an amount calculated at the rate not exceeding one percent of the “net value of taxable supplies” made through it where the consideration with respect to such supplies is to be collected by the operator. Such withheld amount is to be deposited by such E-Commerce Operator to the appropriate GST account by the 10th of the next month. The amount deposited as TCS will be reflected in the electronic cash ledger of the supplier.
The expression “net value of taxable supplies” means the aggregate value of taxable supplies of goods or services, other than services notified under Section 9(5), made during any month by all registered taxable persons through the operator reduced by the aggregate value of taxable supplies returned to the suppliers during the said month.
Yes. The taxpayer would be required to pre-register his credit card, from which the tax payment is intended, with the Common Portal maintained on GSTN. GSTN may also attempt to put in a system with banks in getting the credit card verified by taking a confirmation from the credit card service provider. The payments using credit cards can therefore be allowed without any monetary limit to facilitate ease of doing business.
Source : Central Board of Excise and Customs