In exercise of the powers conferred by section 118 of the Motor Vehicles Act, 1988 (59 of 1988), and in supersession of the Rules of the Road Regulations, 1989, except as respects things done or omitted to be done before such supersession, the Central Government has made the following regulations for the driving of motor vehicles.
Duty towards other road users and the general public - No vehicle shall be driven, stopped or parked on a road or in a public place in such a manner as is likely to endanger the safety of, or cause inconvenience to, other road users.
Use of roads by vehicles.
- Every vehicle or combination of vehicles, while moving on a road, shall have a driver.
- Rules for driving a motor vehicle on the carriage way
Duties of drivers and riders
- Every driver shall at all times drive the vehicle with due care and caution.
- The driver shall ensure that at the time of driving a vehicle, he is in full control of his physical and mental abilities and physically and mentally fully fit to drive a vehicle.
- The driver shall at all times maintain a good lookout and concentrate on the road and the traffic and avoid any activity which distracts, or is likely to distract, his attention.
- The driver and the riders shall take special care and precautions to ensure the safety of the most vulnerable road users such as pedestrians, cyclists, children, the elderly and the differently abled persons.
- The driver shall ensure that his vehicle, while moving or when stationary, does not cause any hindrance or undue inconvenience to other road users or to the occupants of any properties.
- The driver shall ensure that his view is not obstructed and his hearing is not impaired by passengers, animals, the load, equipment in the vehicle or by the condition of the vehicle.
- The driver shall ensure that he and the other occupants of the vehicle wears seat belts, if provided in the vehicle.
- The driver shall ensure that a child up to twelve years of age is seated in an appropriate child restraint system, wherever provided.
- Wherever provided by or under the law, the rider of a motor cycle, with or without a side car, and the pillion-rider and occupant of the side car shall wear protective head gear (helmet) or such other safety device as specified under any law for the time being in force.
- The driver shall ensure that loud music is not played in the vehicle.
- The driver shall not watch digital motion pictures or videos while driving, except where required for route navigation.
- The driver shall strictly comply with the laws for the time being in force relating to prohibition on consumption of alcohol and drugs and smoking, and also ensure compliance thereto by the other crew, riders and passengers, if any.
- The driver shall take care of himself and the passengers of the vehicle, when getting into or out of a vehicle so as to ensure his own safety and the safety of the other staff, the passengers and other road users.
- The driver shall not, in any public place, drive a vehicle which, to his knowledge, has a defect, or which he could have discovered by exercising ordinary care, and on account of which defect the driving of the vehicle is likely to cause undue danger to the safety of the occupants of the vehicles or other road users.
- If a technical defect is discovered in a vehicle while it is being driven, the driver shall take the vehicle off the road in the quickest possible manner.
- While riding or driving a motor cycle or a three wheeler, the driver or the rider shall not hold on to or push any other vehicle.
- The driver of a motor cycle or a three wheeler shall at all times hold the handle bar with both hands except when signalling the manoeuvre as specified in regulation
- The driver may take his feet off the pedals or foot rests only if the road conditions so require or safely permit.
- Where any road is marked by lanes for movement of traffic, the driver shall drive within the lane, and change lanes only after giving a proper signal or road marking or signage.
- Where any lane is marked specially for a class of vehicles, a vehicle of that class shall drive in that lane only.
- Where a lane has been marked for a specified class of vehicles or for a special purpose, no other vehicle of any other class shall be driven in that lane.
- Where a road is divided by a longitudinal yellow or white solid line, the driver, proceeding in the same direction and trying to overtake another vehicle ahead, shall not cross the said yellow or white solid line.
- While approaching inter-sections, where turning lanes are marked with a single solid line, the driver shall ensure that the vehicle remains in the lane meant for the direction of manoeuvre.
- The driver shall not drive on or over a single or double longitudinal solid line, or on a painted traffic island except in case of obstructions on the road.
- On a road having a single broken line along wit h a solid line, the driver of the vehicle driving o n the left of broken line may cross the broken line in order to overtake, but shall return to his lane after completing the manoeuvre, observing the safety precautions specified in regulation.
Right of way
Where a “STOP” sign is displayed on a road, the driver facing the sign shall
- stop before crossing the transverse “STOP” line preceding the “STOP” sign;
- in case a “STOP” line is not marked, or is marked but is not visible, stop immediately before “STOP” sign;
- give way to traffic on the major road; and
- enter the major road only when the way ahead is clear.
Where a “Give Way” sign is displayed on the road, supplemented by a single or double broken transverse “Give Way” road marking, the driver shall slowdown, give way to traffic on the road he is approaching, and proceed cautiously.
If there is no pedestrian crossing marked before the “Give Way” sign or “STOP” sign, the driver shall give way to the pedestrians.
The vehicle emerging onto a road from a property bordering thereon shall give way to the motor vehicles and other traffic already running on that road.
Left, right and ‘U’turns
The driver shall plan well in advance of a turn, move to the appropriate lane of the road and give signal for the intended turn.
Precautions to be taken at intersections
- The vehicle shall invariably slow down when app roaching a road intersection, a road junction, a pedestrian crossing or a road corner, and shall not enter any such intersection, junction or crossing if it is likely to endanger the safety of other road users moving onto, or already on, such intersection, road junction, pedestrian crossing or road corner.
- At intersections and junctions, vehicles approaching from the right side shall have the right of way.
- A motor vehicle shall not enter an intersection if the traffic on the intersection has come to a standstill even if it is on the main road or has a signal to proceed.
Precautions to be taken at roundabouts
- While entering a roundabout, traffic already in the roundabout shall have the right of way.
- A motor vehicle approaching a roundabout shall choose the lane relevant to the direction of its further movement.
- The driver shall use indicators when changing lanes within the roundabout.
- While exiting the roundabout, the driver shall follow the procedure specified in the regulation for taking a left turn.
Indication of signals
- The driver shall clearly indicate his intention to change course, turn left or right and before making any manoeuvre, using mechanical or electrical devices fitted in the vehicle or by hand signals.
- In case a mechanical or electrical device in not fitted in the vehicle for giving signals or, the said device is provided but not functioning, the driver shall give manual signals as specified in the regulations.
Traffic control signals
While approaching a traffic control signal, the vehicle shall slow down and follow the directions given by the traffic control signals.
Manual traffic control
- Where a police officer in uniform or any other authorised person is regulating the traffic at an intersection or at a place other than an intersection, the driver shall slowdown the vehicle and follow the directions of the said officer or person.
- When a “STOP” signal is shown by the police officer in uniform or any other authorised person, the driver shall stop the vehicle before the stop line preceding the pedestrian crossing.
- In case the stop line is not marked or, if marked i s not visible, the driver shall stop the vehicle be fore the pedestrian crossing.
- In case there is no marked pedestrian crossing, the driver shall stop the vehicle before the approaching road at the junction.
- When a vehicle has stopped in compliance to a “STOP ” signal given by the police officer in uniform or any other authorized person, it shall not move further until a signal to proceed is given by the said officer or person.
- A motor vehicle shall not overtake any other road user unless it is safe and not in violation of the provisions of the Act or the rules made thereunder or any other law for the time being in force.
- A vehicle shall be overtaken only from the right side: Provided that a vehicle may be overtaken from the left, if-
- the vehicle which is to overtake and the vehicle which is to be overtaken are both driving on a multi-lane road and the vehicle ahead can be safely overtaken in a marked lane to the left of the vehicle being overtaken;
- the vehicle to be overtaken is either turning right or making a ‘U’ turn from the centre of the road and is giving a signal to turn and it would be safe to overtake it from the left; or
- the vehicle to be overtaken is stationary and it is safe to pass it from the left.
- No vehicle shall be overtaken if such overtaking is likely to impede the oncoming traffic.
- While overtaking, the vehicle shall be driven a t a speed higher than that of the vehicle to be overtaken, but the speed shall not exceed maximum speed limit specified by or under the Act or the rules made thereunder.
- No vehicle shall overtake-
- if the traffic situation is not clear;
- if prohibited by any mandatory traffic signs;
- by crossing the continuous single or double solid longitudinal lane marking dividing the road;
- on a bend or corner or at any obstruction of any kind resulting in the road ahead not being clearly visible;
- at junctions, intersections and pedestrian crossings;
- at a transit location where the road narrows or where lanes on the carriage way are reduced in width;
- on a narrow culvert; or
- on a road where ‘School Zone’ or ‘Hospital Zone’ or ‘Construction Zone’ is indicated by road signs.
- The driver shall use the direction indicators to show his intention to overtake and, after manoeuvring the overtaking, return to the left side of the road as quickly as possible.
- No driver shall give a right turn indicator to signal permission to the following vehicle to overtake him.
- Outside built up areas, the driver shall signal his intention to overtake the vehicle ahead of him by blowing the horn for a very short duration or by head light flasher signal and may overtake the vehicle after getting a signal for overtaking from the driver in front or if the way ahead is clear.
- If a vehicle is overtaking another vehicle, the driver of the vehicle being overtaken shall not in crease its speed or impede the overtaking vehicle’s safe return to the left lane.
Merging in traffic
- A motor vehicle entering a national highway or a state highway or a major district road shall give way to traffic on the highway or the major district road, as the case may be.
- At an intersection of two roads of same category, the driver of the motor vehicle on the right shall have the right of way.
- Wherever applicable, the driver shall use the acceleration for merging lane to build up speed of the vehicle before merging it in the traffic on the highway or on the major district road.
- Before and while merging in the traffic, the driver shall keep a close watch on the traffic through rear view mirror and side-view mirrors and signal his intention to merge.
- The driver shall not attempt to overtake a vehicle or vehicles ahead of him unless he has stayed long enough in the left-hand lane or the lane in which he had been driving.
- A driver shall drive only at a speed which allows him control of the vehicle at all times, taking into account the driving conditions, including to the condition of the vehicle and its load, the road, other traffic, visibility and weather.
- The vehicle shall, during fog, rainfall, snowfall, storm or desert winds, be driven at a lower spe ed to enable the driver to stop the vehicle within the range of forward vision.
- A motor vehicle shall not be driven-
- at a speed exceeding or less than the maximum or minimum speed limit specified on the signages; and
- at a speed exceeding the maximum speed limit notified by the competent authority or authorities for that class of vehicles and for the class of roads on which it is for the time being driven.
- No driver shall, without good and sufficient reason, drive so slowly as to impede the normal traffic flow.
- No driver shall drive at a speed exceeding twenty-five kilometre per hour or such lower speed as may be specified on the road signage while passing by a construction site or a school or a hospital, wherever indicated by signage, or on roads without footpaths and soft shoulders where pedestrians use a part of the carriageway to walk.
Keeping safe distance
- A driver driving behind another vehicle shall keep sufficient distance, commensurate with the traffic conditions, from the vehicle ahead, so as to be able to stop (pull up) safely if the vehicle ahead suddenly slows down or stops.
- When being followed by another vehicle, not suddenly brake without a compelling reason.
- The driver shall during rainfall, snow or storm orice on the road due to severe weather conditions and during other adverse weather conditions, further increase the distance from the vehicle ahead.
Restrictions on driving backwards (in reverse direction)
- No driver of a motor vehicle shall drive the vehicle backwards (in the reverse direction) on a road or in a parking or any other public place, unless for provisions made in the regulations.
- No motor vehicle shall be driven on to a public road in the reverse direction.
- No motor vehicle shall be driven backwards into a road designated as “ONE WAY”.
- Rail-borne vehicles shall have over-riding priority at all unmanned level crossings.
- A driver shall slow down when approaching a railway crossing and shall- i. not park the vehicle within the barriers of a railway crossing; ii. not overtake within the barriers of a railway crossing; and iii. keep to the left of the roadway.
- At a guarded railway crossing, no motor vehicle shall enter the crossing after the gates or barriers have been closed or have started to close or when the vehicular traffic is facing red light signal.
- At an unguarded railway crossing,-
- a motor vehicle shall enter the crossing only after ensuring that no rolling stock is in sight; and,
- the driver of a bus, including a school bus, a goods vehicle, a tractor trolley carrying farm labour or goods and a vehicle carrying hazardous, flammable or dangerous materials, shall stop at the approach of the railway crossing and the driver of the vehicle shall cause the attendant or any other person in the vehicle to walk up to the level crossing to ensure that no rolling stock is approaching from either side, and the attendant or such other person shall guide the driver across such level crossing.
Entering a tunnel
- The driver shall switch on the dipped lights before entering a tunnel.
- No driver shall overtake, make a U-Turn or drive backwards inside a tunnel.
- No driver shall stop or park the vehicle within a tunnel unless absolutely unavoidable and, in such situation, switch on the hazard warning lights of the vehicle and also place reflective traffic warning triangles as specified in clause (c) of sub-rule (4) of rule 138 of the Central Motor Vehicles Rules, 1989, at a distance of twenty meters each from the vehicle in the front of, and behind, the vehicle.
Vehicles going uphill to be given precedence
On mountain roads and steep roads, where the road is not sufficiently wide to allow the motor vehicles to cross each other freely, the driver travelling downhill shall i. stop the vehicle on the left side of the road; and ii. allow the vehicle proceeding uphill to pass first.
Stopping and parking
A vehicle shall not be stopped-
- at a place where the road is narrow or the view is obstructed;
- near or on a sharp bend;
- in an acceleration or a deceleration lane;
- on, or five meters before, a pedestrian crossing;
- on a level crossing;
- five meters or less before a traffic light signal or “Give Way” sign or “STOP” sign or if a stationary vehicle is likely to obstruct these signs from the view of other road users
- at designated bus stands if the vehicle is other than a bus;
- on a yellow box marked on road; and
- where prohibited by a mandatory “No Stopping” sign.
A vehicle shall not be parked-
- at a place where stopping a vehicle is prohibited under sub-regulation (1);
- on a main road or at a stretch of a road where the notified maximum speed limit is fifty kilometres per hour or more;
- on a footpath, cycle track and pedestrian crossing;
- before or after an intersection or a junction up to a distance of fifty meters from the edge of the intersection or junction;
- where it would block access to designated parking spaces;
- near a bus stop, at the entrance to an educational institution or a hospital or if it is likely to block a traffic sign or a fire hydrant;
- in a tunnel;
- in a bus lane;
- in front of the entrance or exit of a property;
- where there is a continuous yellow line installed or painted on the carriageway on the kerb side;
- away from the edge of the footpath;
- opposite another parked vehicle;
- if it is likely obstruct any other vehicle or cause inconvenience to any person;
- alongside another parked vehicle;
- beyond the specified duration at a place where parking is permitted for a specified duration only;
- in a place where parking is permitted for a specified category or categories of vehicles and the vehicle does not belong to the specified category;
- by a driver who is not differently abled in a parking space reserved for vehicles driven by differently abled drivers;
- in a manner other than that specified in the parking bays in a designated parking lot or in such a manner as to occupy excessive space; and
- where parking is prohibited by a “No Parking” sign.
Use of horns and silence zones
- Unnecessary use of horn is prohibited.
- As far as may be, the horn shall be sounded only when the driver apprehends danger to himself or to any other road user.
- The driver shall sound the horn when directed by the mandatory sign.
- The driver shall not
- sound the horn continuously or repeatedly or for a duration longer than necessary or in a residential areas or in a silence zone indicated by a mandatory sign;
- make use of a cut-out by which exhaust gases are released other than through the silencer;
- fit or use an air horn or a multi-toned horn giving a harsh, shrill, loud or alarming noise except as provided in sub-rule (3) of rule 119 of the Central Motor Vehicles Rules,1989; and
- drive a vehicle which creates undue noise or causes an alarming sound when in motion.
Passing along formations
While passing along formations such as funeral and other procession or a body of troops or police contingent on the march, or pack or saddle of animals or cattle, the driver shall reduce the speed of the vehicle, and pass by the formation slowly and cautiously, leaving adequate space between the formation and the vehicle.
Vehicles designated for emergency duties
The driver of a vehicle designated by the Stat e Government for emergency services under sub-rule (4) of rule 108 of the Central Motor Vehicles Rules, 1989 including a vehicle used as ambulance or for fire-fighting or for salvage purposes or a police vehicle, shall operate the multi-toned horn (siren) and the multi-coloured light with flasher only when the vehicle is responding to an emergency call or an alarm.
An emergency vehicle, while its multi-toned horn and the flasher is on, shall have the right of way over all the other vehicles.
Action in case of vehicular accident
- The driver shall maintain absolute cool in case of an accident and do nothing that may harm the other driver or vehicle involved in the accident or any other person.
- Minor accidents
- the driver or drivers, as the case may be, involved in the accident shall alight from the vehicle and take pictures of the vehicles, the occupants of the vehicles, any pedestrian or any other person or vehicle, whether motor vehicle or otherwise, and the accident scene, if possible;
- the drivers shall pull the vehicles out of the road immediately so that the vehicles are clear of on coming traffic;
- the driver or drivers shall place reflective traffic warning triangles near or around the vehicles to alert other drivers, and turn on hazard warning lights;
- the driver or the riders shall immediately call the police or ambulance or nearest hospital if anyone has been hurt;
- The driver shall not leave the scene of an accident, even if it was a minor accident, until everything has been resolved to everyone's satisfaction.
- Major accidents
- every person involved in the accident shall check himself and other occupants of the vehicle or vehicles involved in the accident to see if anyone has been injured;
- if someone has been hurt, medical assistance and police shall be called immediately;
- once the condition of the driver and the passengers or riders has stabilised, the persons involved in the accident shall try to take pictures of the persons and vehicles involved in the accident, including the registration plates of the vehicles and the accident scene;
- the driver or drivers involved in the accident shall move the vehicles vehicle off to the side of the road, if possible, at the earliest;
- if it is not possible to move the vehicle or vehicles, the driver or drivers involved in the accident shall remain in the area of the incident until the police arrives unless the same is not possible due to injuries sustained in the accident;
- the driver and the other occupants shall cooperate with the police authorities in the investigation of the accident;
- if involved in an accident with another vehicle, the drivers shall exchange the following information with that driver: name, address, phone number, insurance company, policy number, driving license number and registration number of the vehicle.
- Interacting with the other driver-
- once the initial shock wears off and it is apparent that no one has been seriously hurt, tempers may flare and all persons involved in the accident shall refrain from losing temper or provoking any other person or persons;
- the driver or any other occupant shall get the other driver's name, address, contact information and insurance details, and provide the same to him;
- if an amicable settlement cannot be made, call the police immediately;
- if police has been informed, all persons involved in the accident shall remain at the scene until the investigators arrive and permit them to leave.
The driver shall use the specified lighting devices at nightfall, at night and at dawn and at other times when visibility is poor:
- No vehicle shall be driven or parked on a public road without displaying registration plates as prescribed by the Act and the rules made thereunder.
- The registration plates on the front and at the rear of the vehicle shall be clearly visible and legible and no object whatsoever or dirt shall obstruct clear view of the entire registration place.
- No letter, word, figure, picture or symbol other than the registration number shall be displayed or inscribed or written on the registration plates.
- No load or other goods shall be placed on a mot or vehicle in such manner as to fully or partly hide the registration plate.
Use of mobile telephones and communication devices.
- The driver shall not use any hand held mobile phone or other communication device.
- No trainer or supervisor shall use a mobile phone or other communication device while training or supervising a learner driver.
Production of documents
- The driver of a transport vehicle shall always carry with him the following documents in original, except for a document that might have been seized by an authorised person or authority, namely:- (a) driving license; (b) certificate of taxation; (c) certificate of registration; (d) certificate of insurance; (e) fitness certificate; and (f) pollution under control certificate. (
- The driver of a vehicle transporting hazardous or dangerous goods shall carry documents specified in rules 132 and133 of the Central Motor Vehicles Rules, 198 9.
- The driver of a non-transport vehicle shall always carry with him- (a) the driving license and pollution under control certificate; and (b) certificate of registration and certificate of insurance or photocopies thereof.
- The driver shall, on demand by police officer in uniform or an officer of the Motor Vehicles Department or any other officer authorised by the State Government in this behalf, produce the documents for inspection.
Pedestrian crossings, footpaths and cycle tracks
- While approaching an uncontrolled pedestrian crossing, the driver shall slowdown, stop and give way to pedestrians, users of invalid carriages and wheelchairs.
- If traffic has come to a standstill, the driver shall not drive the vehicle on the pedestrian crossing if he is unlikely to be able to move further and thereby block the pedestrian crossing.
- When any road is provided with a footpath or cycle track, no vehicle shall drive on such footpath or track, except on the directions of a police officer in uniform or where traffic signs permitting such movement have been displayed.
To access the complete Regulations, click here.
Source : Ministry of Road Transport and Highways