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Pearl millet : Crop Stage-Wise IPM

Management Activity

Pre-sowing*


Common cultural practices:
• Deep ploughing and soil solarisation to expose pupae and propagules of soil borne pathogens.
• Timely sowing should be done.
• Field sanitation, rogueing
• Destroy the alternate host plants
• Soil test based application of manures and fertilizers.
• Adoption of crop rotation.
• Sowing of healthy, disease free and certified seeds
• Uproot and burn infected plants early enough to avoid spread of the disease.
• Avoid high plant populations
• Adopt ecological engineering by growing the attractant, repellent, and trap crops around the field bunds.
Nutrients • Use well decomposed FYM @4t/acre or vermicompost @ 2.0 t/acre treated with Trichoderma at the time of last ploughing or at the time of growing.
• Apply vermicompost at1 week before sowing and FYM at 3-4 weeks before sowing.
• Do not leave FYM or compost exposed to sunlight as nutrients may lose.
Weeds • At the time of field preparation, adopt stale seed bed technique.
• In Striga affected fields, do not grow pearlmillet or sorghum continuously and follow crop rotation with legumes.
Downy mildew, Smut** and Nematodes Cultural control:
• Use tolerant/resistant varieties e.g. MH 1192,ICMH 451,Pusa 23, MBH 110, PHB 57, WC-C 75, ICTP 8203 and GHB 67
• Eliminate any potentially damaging insect problems
. • Plant in a row of 15 inches to 24 inches. Seed may be placed about 6 inches apart within the row.
• The seed should be planted shallow, about half inch deep at the rate of 2 Kg/acre.
• Maintain good fertility levels, apply adequate organic manures
Biological control:
• Application of neem cake @ 80 Kg/acre for nematode control.
Chemical control:
• Spray with fungicidesmetalaxyl8%+ Mancozeb64%WP@800g in 200 l of water/acre for downy mildew.
• Seed dressing with fungicides metalaxyl-M 31.8% ES@ 2.0 ml/Kg seed for downy mildew
Ergot** Cultural control:
• Dipping the seeds in 10% NaCl salt solution for 10 minute to control the ergot disease.
• The crop should be sown as early as possible during June- July with the onset of monsoon.
• Use of resistant cultivars is the most cost-effective method for the control of Ergot disease.
• Eradicate the weeds like Cenchrus ciliaris and Panicum antidotale from around pearl millet fields.

Sowing*


Common cultural practices:
• Use healthy, certified and weed free seeds.
• Timely sowing should be done.
• Line sowing should be done to facilitate inter-culture operations. • Early sowing to avoid the active period of shoot fly population
• Removal of diseased crop residues
• Crop rotation
Nutrient • Seed treatment should be done with Azotobactor/Azospirillum and PSB @ 200 g /acre and VAM inoculum @ 1Kg /acre.
• If soil test recommendation is not available follow the blanket recommendation of NPK @ 28:14:14 Kg/ acre for varieties. For hybrids, apply 32 Kg N, 16 Kg P2O5 and 16 Kg K2O per acre.
• Apply the recommended N in three splits as 25:50:25 per cent at sowing, 15 and 30 days after sowing and full dose of phosphorus and potassium at sowing.
• Under rainfed conditions with low rainfall, the dose of fertilizers should be reduced to 50 percent and applied at the time of sowing.
Weed • Plant population should be maintained to its optimum right from beginning to minimize the crop weed competition.
• Inter cropping with short duration pulse crops like moong bean should be done to suppress weeds between rows.
• Inter cropping with pigeon pea in 2:1 ratio is also recommended for weed suppressing.
Shoot fly** Cultural control:
• Set up the low cost fish meal traps @ 4/acre till the crop is 30 days old.
Mechanical control:
• Removal of the seedlings with dead hearts and keep the optimum plant stand in the field.
• Plough after harvest to remove and destroy the stubbles.
Biological control:
• See common biological practices.
Chemical control:
• Seed treatment with imidacloprid 48% FS 12ml/Kg seed or imidacloprid 70% WS 10 g/Kg seed.
Downy mildew Cultural control:
• Roguing and gap filling, deep ploughing and soil solarisation.
• Avoidance of monoculture.
• Avoidance of low lying fields and water logging.
Biological control:
• The crude extract of Vincarosea, Ocimum sanctum, Allium sativum, Datura stramonium, Azadirachta indica and Thuja sinensis can reduce the disease incidence.
Chemical control:
• The systemic fungicide metalaxyl-M 31.8% ES was used for seed treatment 2.0 ml/Kg seed successfully to control downy mildew in pearl millet.
• Spray metalaxyl 8%+ mancozeb 64% WP@ 800g/acre in 200 l of water
Note: Apply Trichoderma viride/harizanium and Pseudomonas fluorescens as seeds/seedlings/planting material treatment and soil application (if commercial products are used, check for label claim. However, biopesticides produced by farmers for own consumption in their fields, registration is not required).

Vegetative Stage*


Common cultural practices:
• Select and grow varieties resistant to stem borer.
• Sow the lab lab or cowpea as an intercrop (Pearl Millet: Lab lab 4:1).
Common mechanical practices:
• Remove and destroy the disease affected plants
• Dead hearts should be pulled out and used as fodder or buried in manure pits.
• Stubbles should be ploughed up during winter and burnt to destroy the hibernating larvae
Nutrients • Apply remaining 50% dose of N at 15 days after sowing and 25 % N at 30 days after sowing as top dressing with irrigation or immediately after rainfall.
Weeds Inter cultivation: Two weeding with one shallow hoeing up to 4-5 weeks after sowing will keep the field free from weeds.
• First weeding/ hoeing should be done within three weeks of sowing.
• Mulches like straw hay, crop residues etc. can be used in between the rows to suppress the weed growth.
Downy mildew • As mentioned above in the sowing stage.
Cutworm Biological control:
• See common practices.
Stem borer** Cultural control:
• See the common cultural practices
Mechanical control:
• Follow common practices.
Biological control:
• Follow common biological practices.

Flowering heading*

Grain Midge** Cultural control:
• Removal of Johnson grassy weed.
Hairy caterpillar** Cultural control:
• Irrigate once to avoid prolonged mid season drought to prevent pre-harvest infestation.
Mechanical control:
• Dig the trenches of 1 inch depth between the fields & dust the trenches to kill the larvae in pits.
Biological control:
• Spray Bacillus thuringiensis @ 400 g/acre.
Ear head bug** Cultural control:
• See the common cultural practices.
Biological control:
• Spray NSKE 5%
• Azadirachtin 1%
• For others see common practices.
Rust** Cultural control:
• See the common cultural and mechanical practices
Biological control:
• Some fungal species controls rust disease such as Aspergillusglobosum, Chaetomium globosum and Trichoderma koningii.
Smut** Cultural control:
• Avoid rationing.
• Intercropping of mungbean with pearl millet reduces the smut disease.
Birds Mechanical control:
• Use bird scarer
Biological control:
• Apply NSKE 5% on panicle to save the damage from birds
Note: The pesticide dosages and spray fluid volumes are based on high volume spray.
** Pests of regional significance

Source: NIPHM and Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine & Storage



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