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Wheat: Crop Stage-wise IPM

Management Activity

Pre-sowing*


Common cultural practices:
• Deep ploughing of fields during summer to control nematodes population, to expose pupae and popagules of soil borne pathogens.
• Soil solarization
• Timely sowing should be done.
• Field sanitation, rogueing.
• Destroy the alternate host plants
• Growing pea or marigold as a trap crop for the management of Leaf miner.
• Plant tall border crops like mustard for the management of aphids.
• Crop rotation with non-cereals.
• Adopt ecological engineering by growing the attractant, repellent, and trap crops around the field bunds.
Nutrients • At the time of field preparation, apply FYM @ 4.0 t/ acre 2-3 week before sowing or vermicompost @ 2.0 t/acre at one week before sowing.
• Grow suitable green manure crop to improve soil health.
Weeds Cultural control:
• At the time of field preparation, adopt stale seed bed technique to minimize the weeds menace in field.
• Zero till practice is also minimize the weed seed germination.
Soil and seed borne pathogens, Nematodes, Termites, Resting stage of insects Cultural control:
• Apply well rotten farm yard manure only to discourage termite infestation.
• Avoid late sowing of crops.
• For nematode: Non host crops of gram mustard cumin carrots, onion are suggested for 3 years.
• For others follow common cultural practices.
Chemical control:
For nematode:
• Carbofuran 3% CG @ 26640 g/acre ,
For Termite:
• Thiamethoxam 30% FS @ 1.32 Kg per 40 Kg seeds or Chlorpyrifos 20% EC @ 3 – 4 ml/Kg seed and 0.8-1.2 l/acre as soil application

Sowing/Seedling*

Wheat is a Rabi crop that is grown in the winter season. Sowing of wheat takes place in October to December and harvesting is done during the months of February and May. The wheat crop needs cool winters and hot summers, which is why the fertile plains of the Indo-Gangetic region are the most conducive for growing it. Though well-drained loams and clayey loams are considered the ideal soil for wheat, good crops of wheat have also been raised on sandy loams and black soils of the peninsula region. India is broadly divided into 5 wheat zones based on agro-climatic conditions
1. The North-Western Plains Zone: This is the most important zone and comprises the plains of the States of Punjab, Haryana, Jammu, Rajasthan and western Uttar Pradesh. The wheat here is planted in late October - November and the harvesting usually begins by middle of April.
2. The North Eastern Plains Zone: This zone consists of eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Assam, Odisha, Manipur, Tripura, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim. Since rice is harvested later in this area, wheat can be sown only in late November or early December. Harvesting is done by March - April.
3. The Central Zone: This zone consists of Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, southeastern Rajasthan and the Bundelkhand area of Uttar Pradesh. Almost 75 per cent of the wheat cultivated here depends on rain for irrigation. The best quality Durum wheat is produced in this zone.
4. The Peninsular Zone: The peninsular zone consists of the southern States of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu. Sowing is usually completed by early November and harvesting begins in the second half of February. Wheat is produced the earliest in this zone.
5. The Northern Hill Zone: This zone includes the hilly areas of Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Assam and Sikkim. Wheat is sown in October and harvested in May-June. The crop remains dormant in the cold months of November to March and starts growing as the temperature rises in April.
For good and uniform germination, the wheat crop requires a well pulverised but compact seedbed. The wheat seeds should be healthy and have a good germination capacity. Make sure the seeds for sowing don't contain any seeds of weeds. Experts suggest the use of certified seeds obtained from a reliable seed agency. Seeds need to be planted on time to conserve moisture for a good crop.
Nutrients • Seed treatment should be done with Azotobactor culture @ 200 g/acre.
• Fertilizers should be applied on soil test basis. Generally, 60 Kg N, 25 Kg P2O5 and 20 Kg K2O per acre is recommended for wheat.
• Apply 1/3 of N and full dose of P & K at the time of sowing.
Weeds • Hand weeding
Soil and seed borne pathogens, Nematodes, Resting stage of insects Cultural control:
• For Loose smut: The seed is soaked in cold water during hot summer months in the morning hours and kept in hot sun from 8 am -12 noons and then dried in the afternoon. This kills the fungus inside the seed and provides a good disease measure without use of fungicides. However, precautions to be taken so that there is no damage to the viability of seeds.
• Use resistant/tolarent varieties.
• For seed gal nematode use certified seed resistance varieties only clean seed by sieving or by using 2% salt water floatation to remove galls and prevent ear cockle diseases.
• Use the tolerant varieties such as C-306 for brown mite.
Dry cleaning: Galls can be separated by coarse sieve from the healthy seeds.
• Winnowing or fanning
Brine floatation: 2% salt solution in place of plain water removes almost 100 % galls.
Biological Control:
• Pseudomonas fluorescens 1.75% WP (In house isolated Strain Accession No. MTCC 5176) @ 5 g/Kg seed (seed treatment)
• Pseudomonas fluorescens 1.75% WP (In house isolated Strain Accession No. MTCC 5176)@ 5 g/l (Foliar spray)
• Apply neem cake@ 80 Kg/acre.
Chemical Control:
For nematode: Carbofuran 3% CG @ 26640 g/acre ,
For loose smut: Benomyl 50 % WP @ 2g/Kg seeds or Carbendazim 50% WP @ 2 g/ Kg seeds or Carboxin 75% WP @ 2 -2.5 g/Kg seeds or Tebuconazole 2% DS @ 0.2 Kg/10 Kg seed or Carboxin 37.5% + Thiram 37.5% DS @ 3.0 g/Kg
For flag smut: Carboxin 75% WP@2 -2.5 g/ Kg seed or Tebuconazole 2% DS@0.2 Kg/10 Kg seed
For Bunt: Carboxin 75% WP@ 2 -2.5 g/ Kg seed
For Termite: Thiamethoxam 30% FS @ 1.32 Kg per 40 Kg seeds or Chlorpyrifos 20% EC @ 3 – 4 ml/Kg seed and 0.8-1.2 l/acre as soil application
Termites Cultural control:
• Deep ploughing of fields during summer. Three summer ploughings at 10 days interval reduces juvenile population.
• Apply well rotten farm yard manure only to discourage termite infestation.
• Avoid late sowing of crops.
• Take 4 nos earthen pots/acre around the hole and put 500 maize gully without seed or 10 places in fields of wheat crops put one Kg of raw dunk of cow.
• For termite and shoot fly destruct the crop residues which form the sources of infestation.
• Use of crude oil emulsion to destroy the termite colony in the termatorium.
Mechanical control:
• Dismantle termitaria (termite mounds) around field and kill the termite queen.
Biological control:
• Apply neem cake@ 80 Kg/acre.
Chemical control:
• Same as pre sowing stage

Vegetative


Common cultural practices:
• Provide irrigation at critical stages of the crop • Avoid water stress and water stagnation conditions.
• Enhance parasitic activity by avoiding chemical spray, when larval parasitoids are observed
Common mechanical practices:
• Collection and destruction of eggs, and larvae
• Collect and destroy diseased and insect infected plant parts
• Use yellow sticky traps for aphids and blue sticky traps for thrips @ 4-5 traps/acre.
• Use light trap @ 1/acre and operate between 6 pm and 10 pm
• Install pheromone traps @ 4-5/acre for monitoring adult moths activity (replace the lures with fresh lures after every 2-3 weeks)
• Erecting of bird perches @ 20/acre for encouraging predatory birds such as King crow, common mynah etc.
• Set up bonfire during evening hours at 7-8 pm
Common biological practices:
• Conserve natural enemies through ecological engineering
• Augmentative release of natural enemies.
Nutrients • Apply 1/3 of N as top dressing with 1st irrigation and remaining 1/3rd N with second irrigation.
Weeds Chemical control:
• To control wide range of broad leaf Weed, post emergence application of Metsulfuron Methyl 20% WP @ 20 g in 500-600 + Surfactant (Iso-Octyl Phenoxyl-Poloxethanol 12.5%) @ 200 ml/acre or 2,4-D Dimethyl Amine salt 58% SL @ 0.344-0.416 l in 200-240 l of water per acre or 2,4-D Sodium salt Technical @ 0.25-0.40 Kg in 200 l of water acre
• To control wild oat, Poa anua, Phalaris and many broad leaf weeds apply Isoproturon 50% WP @ 0.8 Kg in 300 l of water per acre as pre and post emergence spray.
Aphids Cultural control:
• Regular field monitoring for pest & defender population, barrier crops like mustard crop around the field.
• Plant tall border crops like maize, sorghum or millet to reduce pest population.
• For others follow common cultural practices.
Biological control:
• Conserve the natural enemies.
Chemical control:
• Quinalphos 25% EC @ 400 ml in 200-400 l of water per acre or Thiamethoxam 25% WG @ 20 g in 200 l of water per acre.
Pink borer, (leaf eating caterpillar) Cultural control:
• Bird perches @ 10/ acre should be erected for facilitating field visits of predatory birds.
• Others control measures same as aphid
Biological control:
• Conserve natural enemies.
Chemical control:
• Dichlorvos 76% EC@ 112.8-150.4 ml in 200-400 l of water acre
Shoot fly Cultural control:
• Regular field monitoring & pest & defender population, barrier crops like mustard crop around the field.
• Plant tall border crops like maize, sorghum or millet to reduce pest population.
• For monitoring fish meal traps can be used.
Chemical control:
• Cypermethrin 10% EC@ 220 ml in 200-320 l of water/acre or Phorate 10% CG @ 7500 g per acre
Brown mite Cultural control:
• Follow common cultural practices.
Biological control:
• Conserve these natural enemies by growing following plants:
• Use Neem oil (2%) or NSKE (5%)
Chemical control:
• Quinalphos 25% EC @ 640 ml in 200-400 l of water per acre
Army worm/Cutworm Cultural control:
• Regular field monitoring of pest & defender population, barrier crops like mustard crop around the field.
• For others follow common cultural practices.
Biological control:
• Pheromone traps @ 4-5/acre can be installed for monitoring fruit borer activity. Replace the lures with fresh lures after every 20-25 day interval. ETL for fruit borer is 8 to10 moths /day/trap.
• Bird perches @ 10/ acre should be erected for facilitating field visits of predatory birds.
• Follow common biological practices.
Chemical control:
• Carbaryl 50% WP @ 800 g in 200 l of water/acre or Trichlorfon 5% GR @ 300 g per acre or Trichlorfon 5% DUST @ 300 g per acre or Trichlorfon 50% EC@ 300 ml per acre or Dichlorvos 76% EC@ 112.8-150.4 ml in 200-400 l of water acre
Ghujhia Weevil**, Wheat bug, Wheat thrips** • Follow common practices for cultural and biological control.
Leaf rust, Stem rust and Yellow rust. Cultural control:
• Mixed cropping and crop rotation
• Avoid excess “N”.
Chemical control:
• Propiconazole 25% EC @ 200 ml in 200 l of water/acre or Tebuconazole 25% EC @ 200 ml in 200 l of water/acre or Thiophanate Methyl 70% WP@ 286 g in 300-400 l of water/acre or Zineb 75% WP @ 6-8 Kg in 300-400 l of water/acre or Mancozeb 75% WP@ 6-8 Kg in 300 l of water/acre
Powdery mildew Cultural control:
— The disease severity is more in some pockets and most of the present varieties do not have adequate resistance.
Chemical control:
• Triadimefon 25% WP @ 200 g in 300 l of water/acre
Foliar blight, Seedling blight**, Leaf spot, Leaf blight Cultural control:
• Only use certified seed /resistance varieties timely sowing seed, & crop rotation.
• Plantation of tall plant crop as a barrier for air borne disease
Chemical control:
• Zineb 75% WP @ 6-8 Kg in 300-400 l of water/acre or Thiophanate Methyl 70% WP @ 286 g in 200 l of water/acre or Mancozeb 75% WP@ 6-8 Kg in 300 l of water/acre

Ear head stage

Nutrients • Foliar application of deficient micronutrient should be done as when the symptoms are observed.
Weeds • Remove left over weeds to check the weed seed spread.
Helicoverpa American pod borer), armyworm, Cultural control:
• Growing intercrops such as cowpea, onion, maize, coriander, urdbean in 1:2 ratio
• Guard crop sorghum or maize in 4 rows all around wheat crop as guard crop.
• Rotate the wheat crop with a non host cereal crop, cucurbit, or cruciferous vegetable.
• Bird perches @ 4-8/ acre should be erected for facilitating field visits of predatory birds.
• For others follow common cultural practices.
Biological control:
• Pheromone traps @ 4-5/acre can be installed for monitoring fruit borer activity. Replace the lures with fresh lures after every 20-25 day interval. ETL for fruit borer is 8 to10 moths /day/trap.
• Either conserve the natural enemies spider dragonfly, predatory beetles Coccinellids, lacewing, syrphid flies , cotesia spp. etc. or inundatively release of T. pretiosum @ 0.4 lakh/acre 4-5 times from flower initiation stage at weekly intervals, larval parasitoids Chrysoperla zatrowii sillemi and Campoletis chloridae in field.
Chemical control:
• Quinalphos 25% EC @ 640 ml in 200-400 l of water per acre.
• For army worm same as vegetative stage.
Kernal bunt Cultural control:
• Low-lying areas of the field accumulate water and are more prone to KB. Effective land leveling and drainage can reduce disease incidence.
• Decrease seed rate during sowing.
• Increase row spacing during sowing.
• Delayed sowing.
• Avoiding irrigation during the period of awn emergence and end of flowering may hinder disease development.
• Avoid lodging by using balance dose of Nitrogen and Potash.
• Plastic mulching or solarization reduces the chance of teliospore germination.
• Burn the stubble after harvesting.
• Crop rotation with non-host crop.
Chemical control:
• Propiconazole 25% EC@ 200 ml in 300 l of water/acre or Bitertanol 25% WP@ 896 g in 300 l of water/acre or Thiram 75% WS @ 10-12 g in 400 ml of water/acre
Loose smut, Hill bunt and Head scab, Flag smut Cultural control:
• For Loose smut: In the standing crop, the plants showing yellowing owing of the boot leaf tip normally are the ones which will give smutted ear heads on emergence. Uproot such plants before ear emergence to reduce the infestation of healthy seeds at later stage.
• Use disease free seeds in the healthy field. For seed production, disease free field/areas to be identified for having crop without considerable inoculum load.
Chemical control:
For Flag smut:
• Carboxin 75% WP@2 -2.5 gm/ Kg seed or Tebuconazole 2% DS@0.2 Kg/10 Kg seed or Thiram 75% WS @ 10-12 g in 400 ml of water/acre
For Bunt:
• Carboxin 75% WP@ 2 -2.5 gm/ Kg seed.
• Triadimefon 25% WP @ 200 g in 300 l of water/acre
For Loose smut:
• Same as pre-sowing stage
Note: The chemical dosages and spray fluid volumes are based on high volume sprayer.
*Apply Trichoderma viride/harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens as seed treatment and soil application (If Commercial products are used, check for label claim. However, biopesticides produced by farmers for own consumption in their fields, registration is not required).
**Pests of regional significance

Source: NIPHM and Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine & Storage



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