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Sugarcane: Crop Stage-wise IPM

Management Activity

Pre – sowing*

Nutrients Soil test based nutrient recommendations should be followed also,
• Apply organic manures @ 8 to 10 tonnes/acre treated with Trichoderma.
• Press mud can also be used as organic manure @ 2 tonnes/acre which is particularly useful in saline alkali soils.
• Sugarcane trash can be used as a mulch. Spray trash with 32 Kg urea, 40 Kg Single Super Phosphate and 4 Kg decomposing culture/acre for better decomposition.
• Sugarcane trash can also be incorporated while making organic manure along with press mud and use of earthworms for preparing vermicompost.
• Crops like sun hemp and dhaincha are grown as green manure crop. Green manure crops can be grown as a sole crop and buried in the field at an age of 1.5 to 2 months (before flowering).
Weeds Cultural control:
• Deep ploughing in summer and left undisturbed 20-25 days.
• Cross ploughing of land followed by clod crushing and 1-2 harrowing.
• At the time of field preparation, adopt stale seed bed technique ie. pre sowing irrigation followed by shallow tillage to minimize the weeds menace in field.


Nutrients • Use biofertilizers such as Acetobactor, Azotobactor, Azospirillium, Bacillus or Pseudomonas. Either of these biofertilizers or in combination should be used at the time of sowing @ 5 Kg / acre for sett treatment or in soil along with FYM.
• Basal application of NPK is done on soil test basis.
•  In sugarcane, fertilizer should be applied as per the table mentioned below.
• Apply zinc sulphate @10 Kg/acre in soil at the time of planting.
• In soils deficient with micro nutrients like iron, zinc, manganese, copper, molybdenum and boron, 10 Kg ferrous sulphate, 8 Kg zinc sulphate, 4 Kg manganese sulphate, 4 Kg copper sulphate,1 Kg, sodium molybdate and 2 Kg borax per hectare should be applied.
• Micro nutrient fertilizers should be mixed with well decomposed dung manure or compost and applied as basal dose.
Weeds Cultural control:
• Adopt proper crop rotation and intercropping.
• Avoid mono cropping.
• Follow recommended agronomic practices.
• If intercropping has been adopted no chemical herbicide should be use in the field.
Chemical control:
• 2, 4-D dimethyl amine salt 58% SL @2.52 l in 200 l of water/acre
• 2, 4-D sodium salt technical (having 2, 4-D acid 80 % w/w) (earlier registered as 80%WP) @1-1.3 Kg in 240-360 l of water/acre
• Hexazinone 13.2% + diuron 46.8 % WP @800 g in 200 l of water/acre
• 2, 4-D ethyl ester 38 % EC (having 2,4-D acid 34 % w/w) @1.412-2.116 l in 200 l of water/acre
• Diuron 80% WP @ 0.8-1.6 Kg in 2.4 l of water/acre
Note: Herbicide should be selected as per the weed species in previous season in the same field as per recommendation of CIBRC.
Soil & seed borne diseases, insect pests Cultural control:
• Select tolerant / resistant varieties
• Select the seed cane from aerated steam treated nurseries
• Crop like potato, mustard, lentil, pulses and winter vegetables can be grown as inter crop during autumn planted sugarcane i.e. Oct-Nov &, sunflower, soybean, green gram, groundnut etc. during Feb-March planted sugarcane to reduce the pests population and to conserve bioagents of white woolly aphid and other pests
• Adopt paired row method of planting
Nematodes Cultural control:
• Deep ploughing, solarisation, flooding, crop rotation and apply organic manure.
• Under wetland conditions, intercropping with sun hemp or marigold or daincha
• Apply pressmud at 6 t/acre or poultry manure @ 0.8 t/acre or neem cake 0.8 t/acre or poultry manure @ 0.4 t/acre before last ploughing.
Biological control:
• Application of biocontrol agents like Pochonia chlamydosporia, Paecilomyces lilacinus or Trichoderma viride or Pseudomonas fl uorescens @ 4 Kg/acre at the time of planting mixed with moist FYM or cured pressmud and distributed uniformly helps in suppressing the plant parasitic nematodes.
Termites & white grubs** Cultural control:
• Remove stubble and debris of previous crops
• Dig the termatoria and destroy the queen.
Physical control:
• Locate and destroy the termite colony and affected setts.
• Set up light trap for trapping of white grubs adults and kill them in kerosene oil water.
• At onset of monsoon collect and destroy the adult beetles by shaking the branches of trees on which they settle during night.
Biological control:
• Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) can be sprayed at the rate of 100 million nematodes per acre, in root grub and termite infested sugarcane fields OR
• EPN infected cadavers of Galleria/Corcyra larvae containing live infective juveniles (IJs) are implanted in soil at plant bases at the rate of four cadavers per plant during May/ June and/or September for sugarcane root grub control.
Chemical control:
For termite:
• Chlorantraniliprole 18.5% SC @ 200-250 ml in 400 l of water/acre or clothianidin 50%WDG @100 g in 400 l of water/acre or imidacloprid 70% WS @28-42 g in 40-60 l of water/acre or imidacloprid 17.8% SL @ 140 ml in 750 l of water/acre or chlorpyrifos 20% EC @ 2.5 l/acre
For white grubs:
• Fipronil 40% + imidacloprid 40% WG@175-200 g in 400-500 l of water/acre or phorate 10% CG @ 10,000 g/acre
*Apply Trichoderma spp. and Pseudomonas fluorescens for setts and soil application (for usage of commercial products check label claim. However, biopesticides produced by farmers for own consumption in their fields, registration is not required).

Tillering stage

Nutrients • Top dressing of N should be done as per the fertilizer recommendations mentioned in table below.
Weeds Cultural control:
• The initial 30-120 days is the critical period of weed competition. Therefore the weed management practice should be ensured for the fi rst 3-4 months.
• Shallow Blind hoeing may be performed after planting before germination.
• Being wildly spacing crop, tractor or bullock drawn implement should be used for intercultural operations at 30 and 60 DAS along with hand weeding within rows.
• Trash mulch @ 2 tonnes/acre at 45 days after planting is useful to control weeds and avoid cost on hand weeding/hoeing in ratoon crops.
Chemical control:
• Same as sowing stage except diuron 80% WP or metsulfuron methyl 20% WP@ 12 g in 200-240 l of water/acre
Note: Herbicide should be selected as per the weed species in the field as per recommendation of CIBRC
Early shoot borer, root borer Cultural control:
• Deep summer ploughing
• Inter culture and hand weeding
• Timely irrigation
• Light earthing up of crops three months after planting
• Grow onion/garlic/coriander as intercrop
• In ratoon crop mulching with trash reduce shoot borer attack
Mechanical control:
• Use of pheromone traps @ 4-5/acre for monitoring
• Remove and destroy the dead hearts along with larvae
• Installation of light trap with exit option for natural enemies @ 1 per acre
Biological control:
• Release 125 gravid females of Sturmiopsis inferens a tachinid parasitoid per acre.
• Release Trichogramma chilonis @ 20,000/acre @ 10 days interval at the time of incidence.
Chemical control:
• Fipronil 5% SC @ 600-800 ml in 200 l of water/acre
• Fipronil 0.3 % GR @ 30-40 ml in 10000-13320 l of water/ acre
• Chlorpyrifos 20% EC @ 500-600 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre
• Chlorantraniliprole 18.5% SC@ 150 ml in 400 l of water/acre
• Cypermethrin10% EC @ 260-304 ml in 200-280 l of water/acre
• Quinalphos 5% granule @ 2000 g/acre
• Chlorantraniliprole 0.4% GR @ 7.5 g/acre
• Monocrotophos 36% SL @ 600-900 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre
• Quinalphos 25 % EC @ 800 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre
White grubs** • Same as sowing stage
Top shoot borer Mechanical control:
• Collection and destruction of adult moths
• Collection and destruction of egg masses
• Collection and destruction of dead hearts
• Use of pheromone traps @ 4-5/acre for monitoring coinciding with brood emergence
• Installation of light trap with exit option for natural enemies @ 1/ acre
Biological control:
• Release of Trichogramma spp. @ 20,000/acre 2-3 times at 10 days interval
Chemical control:
• Chlorantraniliprole18.5% SC @150 ml in 400 l of water/acre
• Phorate10% CG @ 12,000 g/acre
• Carbofuran 3% CG @ 26640 g/acre
• Chlorantraniliprole 0.4% GR @ 7.5 Kg/acre
Black bug Chemical control:
• Quinalphos 25 % EC @ 800 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre
Scale insect ** Cultural control:
• Use resistant/tolerant varieties.
• Select the healthy and pest free setts for planting.
• Keep the fields and bunds free from weeds.
• Avoid water stagnation in the field for the longer period.
• Avoid repeated ratoons.
Physical control:
• Detrash the crop at 150th and 210th day of planting.
Biological control:
• Release coccinellid predators.
Chemical control:
• Monocrotophos 36% SL @ 600 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre
White woolly aphid Cultural control:
• De-trashing of canes if infestation exceeds low intensity and remove water shoots.
• Paired row system of planting.
• Avoid excessive use of nitrogenous fertilizers.
• Use of organic fertilizers.
• Rapping of canes all along the rows.
• Do not transport Infested tops
• Infested canes should not be used as seed for planting.
Biological control:
• Conserve and augment the natural enemies
• Create congenial conditions for promoting entomo pathogens such as Cladosporium oxysporum, Metarhizium anisopliae, Verticillium lecanii and Beauveria bassiana.

Cane formation stage

Nutrients • Incorporate crop residues in soil immediately after harvest.
Weeds • Remove left over weeds before shedding of seeds to prevent weed infestation.
Pyrilla Cultural control:
• Avoid late application of nitrogenous fertilizers.
• Collect and put egg masses in cage to facilitate emergence of parasitoids.
• Removal and destruction of lower dried leaves.
Biological control:
• Release of 3,200 to 4,000 cocoons or 3.2-4.0 lakh eggs of Epiricania melanoleuca per acre when 3-5 Pyrilla individuals per leaf are seen.
• Conserve and augment Epiricanica population from rich to scanty fi elds.
Chemical control:
• Chlorpyrifos 20% EC @ 600 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre
• Dichlorvos 76% EC @ 150.4 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre
• Monocrotophos 36% SL @ 200 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre
Stalk borer, internode borer, pink borer and plassy borer** Cultural control:
• Proper water management to avoid lodging
• De-trashing of canes and removal of water shoots once in a month from 5th months on wards.
• Balanced doses of fertilizers.
• Use of pheromone traps @ 4-5/acre
Biological method:
• Release egg parasitoid, Trichogramma chilonis @ 20,000/acre six releases at fortnightly intervals starting from 4th month onwards.
• Setting pheromone traps at spindle level on 5th month of the crop @ 4-5 traps/acre 15 meter grid. The pheromone septa need to be changed twice at 45 days interval.
Chemical control:
• Chlorpyrifos 20% EC @ 500-600 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre
• Monocrotophos 36% SL @ 750 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre
Scale insect** and mealy bug • For scale insects same as tillering stage For mealy bug
Cultural control:
• Use resistant/tolerant varieties
• De-trashing of canes and removal of water shoots.
• Drain excess water from the fi eld and avoid water stress conditions.
Biological control:
• Conserve and augment the natural enemies such as Chilocorus, Hyperaspis, Chrysoperla, Aphytis, Coccophagus and Encarsia etc.
Chemical control:
• Monocrotophos 36% SL @ 600 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre
Whitefly Cultural control:
• Clipping of infested leaves.
• Avoid water stress and water logged conditions.
• Avoid planting in low land areas
• Synchronization of sugarcane planting and harvesting maybe adopted zone wise.
Mechanical control:
• Detrashing the puparia bearing leaves and immediately disposing by burning or burying to prevent emergence of adult whitefl ies.
• Use yellow sticky trap.
Biological Control:
• Conserve and augment the natural enemies such as Encarsia sp, Eretmocerus spp.,
• Mirid bug, dragonfl y, spider, robber fl y, praying mantis, fi re ants, coccinellids, lacewings, big eyed bugs (Geocoris sp) etc.
Red rot, smut, grassy shoot, wilt, leaf scald, red stripe, mosaic diseases**, rust** and pokkahboeng** Cultural control:
• Use resistant or moderately resistant varieties.
• Any sett showing reddening at the cut ends or at the nodal region should be discarded.
• Healthy setts should be planted. Such setts must be produced from crop raised from heat treatment of seed canes in moist hot air at 54° C for 2.5 hour at 99% humidity.
• Remove affected clump along with root system and burn.
• Bunding of aff ected fi eld should be done to avoid movement of rain or floodwater to healthy fields.
• Ratooning of diseased crop should be avoided.
• Diseased crop should be harvested as early as possible.
• Crop rotation should be followed in aff ected fields.
• Use yellow sticky traps for the control of aphid vector.
Rodents: lesser bandicoot,
soft furred field rat
Cultural control:
• Practice clean cultivation/maintain weed free fi elds which reduces the harboring/ hiding points for rodents.
• Practice trapping with locally available traps using bait. In areas, where bandicoote is a problem, wonder traps/multi-catch traps work better and enable to trap more animals into a single trap.
• Identify live rodent burrows and smoke the burrows with burrow smoker for 2-3 minutes
• Erect owl perches @ 5-6/acre to promote natural control of rodents
Chemical control:
• Bromadiolone 0.25 % CB @ 0.005%
• Bromadiolone 0.005 % RB @ 0.005%

Reproductive /maturity

Nutrients Incorporate crop residues in soil immediately after harvest.
Weeds Remove left over weeds to prevent weed infestation in ratoon crop.
Harvesting • Deep harvesting.
• Removal of late shoots and water shoots.

After harvesting

• Avoid trash burning to preserve the natural enemies
• Stubble shaving should be done at ground level.
• Destroy the stubble in borer and white grub infested fi eld.
Ratoon • Avoid ratoons to reduce the pest problems.
• Avoid ratoons in late harvested crop.
Note : The pesticide dosages and spray fluid volumes are based on high volume sprayer.
** Pests of regional significance

Source: NIPHM and Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine & Storage

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