|Nutrients||• Pits of 1 metre cube are dug in square system during summer season and kept open for controlling soil borne pests.|
|Weeds||• Deep ploughing before establishment of orchards
• Remove the weeds mechanically.
|Pests, nematode and soil borne pathogens||• Deep summer ploughing of fields to control nematodes and soil borne diseases
• Use of resistant / tolerant varieties
|Nutrients||• Pits should be filled with a mixture of pond silt, red soil and FYM.
• Two- three Kg of bone meal or single super phosphate per pit should be applied.
• Inter culture operation and hand weeding
• Where mechanical removal is not possible apply 2,4-D Sodium salt Technical (having 2,4-D acid 80 % w/w) (Earlier Registered as 80% WP) 0.5-1.28 Kg in 240 l of water/acre or apply Diuron 80% WP @ 1-2 Kg in 240 l of the water/acre (only for sweet orange) for control of weeds such as Cyperus iria, Tribulus terrestris, Digera arvensis, Commelinanudiflora.
Vegetative growth stage * (1-5 years)
|Nutrients||• Nitrogen is applied in the form of FYM and oil cakes each at 25% and the remaining 50% with chemical fertilizers, while, P2O5 in the form of super phosphate and K2O in the form of muriate of potash.
• Manures are applied in 2 to 3 equal doses ie. first dose in December-January, 2nd dose in June-July, 3rd dose in September. Potash application can be reduced if the soil is rich in this nutrient.
• Nitrogen containing fertilizers should be applied in three equal splits in January, July and November; phosphorus containing fertilizers in two splits in January and July and potassium containing fertilizers may be applied as single dose in January.
• Adopt ring method of fertilizer application.
• A mixture of zinc sulphate 0.5%, manganese sulphate 0.2%, boric acid 0.1%, urea 1% and lime 0.4% has to be sprayed two or three times in a year to control chlorosis in leaves.
• Intercrops during pre-bearing period short growing crops like groundnut, ragi, bajra wheat and vegetables (except solanaceous crops) can be profitably grown in the inter spaces.
• In the bearing orchards, raise green manure crops like sunhemp, green gram, cowpea etc and incorporate into the soil during the monsoon period.
Vegetative growth stage (1-5 years)
|Weeds||• Timely interculturing and hand weeding should be done.
• Mulching - After weeding and manuring, apply dry-leaf mulch or paddy husk to a thickness of 8 cm in the basin.
• Inter-cultivation - Shallow ploughing or light hand digging should be done during monsoon season. The soil in the basin is likely to become hard under continuous irrigation and therefore it should be given a light hand-digging with spade after every three irrigations so as to maintain porosity and tilth. Under no circumstances should weeds be allowed to grow rampant in the orchard.
Fruiting stage (5-20 years)
|Weeds||• Cultural operations same as in vegetative stage.|
|Citrus blackfly**||Mechanical control:
• Collect and destroy the damaged plant parts along with nymphs, pupa and adults.
• Use light trap (wavelength of 550 nm)
• Yellow sticky traps or cards reduce the density of black flies
• Pupal parasitoids: Encarsia formosa, Eretmocerus spp
• Predators: Chrysoperla zastrowi sillemi, Coccinellids, Spiders.
|Citrus aphid||Mechanical control:
• Use yellow sticky trap
• Conserve and enhance population of Predators: like Lacewings birds, earwigs, some ground beetles and rove beetles, spiders.
• Foliar spray with dimethoate each at 30% EC @ 594-792ml in 600-800 l of water/ acre.
• Foliar spray with chlorpyrifos 20% EC @ 600-800ml in 600-800 l of water/acre
• Foliar spray with monocrotophos 36% SL @ 600-800ml in 200-800 l of water/acre
• Foliar spray with oxydemeton-methyl 25% EC @ 480-640ml in 600-800 l of water/ acre
|Citrus psylla||Mechanical control:
• Collect and destroy the infested plant parts
• Conserve parasitoids such as Tamarixia radiata, Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis
• Conserve predators such as Chrysoperla zastrowi sillemi, coccinellids, syrphids.
• Systemic insecticides like imidacloprid 17.8% SL @ 50 ml depending on size of tree & Protection equipment used are very effective at controlling both the nymphs and the adults.
• Foliar spray thiamethoxam 25% WG @ 40 g in 400 l of water/acre.
• Foliar spray with oxydemeton-methyl 25% EC @ 600-800 ml in 600-800 l of water/ acre
|Fruit sucking moth||Mechanical control:
• Destruction of larval hosts (alternate host) around orchards.
• Collection and destruction of rotten and dropped fruits.
• Collection and destruction of moths during night time using battery or flame torch in addition to installation of one fluorescent light trap/acre before one month of fruit maturation between 7.00 PM and 11.00 PM.
• Prune affected shoots during winter.
• Destroy ant colonies.
• Grow attractant plants to attract the defenders
• Bachelor’s Buttons or cornflower (Centaure acyanus), coriander attract wasps.
• Collect and destroy the damaged leaves, twigs and stems
• Use sticky barrier (5cm length) on trunk
• Field release of Australian ladybird beetle (Cryptolaemus montrouzieri) @10 beetles per tree.
• Use fish oil rosin soap 25 g/lit
• Spray with methyl demeton or dimethoate 2 ml /l or confi dor 200 SL @ 4 ml/acre
|Citrus leaf miner||Mechanical control:
• Use pheromone trap @ 5/acre.
• Pruning of affected parts during winter and burning
• Carbofuran 3% CG @ 20000 g/acre
• Foliar spray with imidacloprid 17.8% SL @ 50 ml and use spray volume depending on size of tree & protection equipment used
• Foliar spray permethrin 25% EC @160-240 ml in 400 l of water/acre
• Foliar spray with phorate 10% CG @ 6000 g/acre
|Citrus/Lemon Butterfl y||Cultural control:
Grow attractant plants: Carrot family, sunflower family, buckwheat, alfalfa, corn, shrubs (lacewing)
• Nectar rich plants with small flowers i.e. anise, caraway, parsley, mustard, sun flower, buckwheat and cowpea (Braconid wasp)
• Hand pick the larvae and destroy.
• Conserve the parasitoids such as Trichogramma evanescens.
• Telenomus spp on eggs Brachymeria spp, Cotesia on larvae and Pterolus sp. On pupae.
• Spray Malathion @ 1 ml/ lit.
• Foliar spray with quinalphos 25% EC @ 600-800 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre
• Water stress often aggravates mite problem. Make sure that trees are well irrigated, particularly during the stress in late summer.
• The most important natural enemies of citrus mite are a predacious mite Euseius hibisci and the predators Agistemus sp. and Amblylseisus hibisci.
• Foliar spray with monocrotophos 36% SL @ 374.8-500 ml in 200-800 l of water/acre
• Pruning of the scale infested twigs.
• Natural predators usually keep this insect in check.
• Control ants and dust which can give the scale a competitive advantage.
• Field release of Vadalia and Australian ladybugs.
• Spray dormant oil in late winter before spring.
• Spray horticultural oil, if needed, year round.
• Apply mixture of manure compost tea, molasses and citrus oil.
• Garlic-pepper tea also helps.
• Foliar spray with quinalphos 25% EC @1680-2240 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre.
|Citrus scab||Cultural control
• Collect and destroy the infested leaves, twigs and fruits.
• Spray with 0.3 % COC or 1.0% Bordeaux mixture or 0.2% chlorothalonil at 15 day interval
|Citrus canker||Mechanical control:
• Select seedlings free from canker for planting in main field
• Prune out and burn all canker infected twigs before monsoon.
• Maintain proper aeration by training and pruning for reducing the leaf wetness period.
• Captan 75% WP @ 666.8 g in 6-8 l of water/acre
• Streptomycin Sulphate 9% + Tetracycline Hydrocloride 1%) SP Spray Streptocycline 50 to 100 ppm solution repeatedly at an interval of 15 to 20 days after the appearance of new growth.
• Cover the foliage and young fruits fully.
|Citrus tristeza disease||Cultural control:
• Use certified budwood free of CTV
• Remove all diseased trees as and when the disease is noticed. Fresh plantings to be taken with virus free materials on tolerant rootstocks. For sweet orange and mandarin avoid susceptible rootstocks.
• For acid lime, use seedling immunised with mild strain of Citrus Tristeza Virus (Cross protection).
• Periodic sprays of insecticides like Monochrotophos 0.05 % controls the population of citrus aphids that reduces secondary spread of the disease in the orchard.
• Copper oxy chloride 50% WP @ 1 Kg in 300-400 l of water/acre
• Disease spread can be controlled by removing diseased bark and a buffer strip of healthy, light brown to greenish bark around the margins of the infection.
• Preventive measures like selection of proper site with adequate drainage.
• Use of resistant rootstocks and avoiding contact of water with the tree trunk by adopting ring method of irrigation are effective.
• Aureofungin 46.15% w/v. SP @ 300 (1%) gm /ml/acre.
|Powdery mildew**||Cultural control:
• Nitrogen fertilizers encourage dense leafy growth, nitrogen should be applied at precise rates, less than 0.03175 metric per acre, to decrease severity.
• Sulphur 80% WP @ 1252 g in 300-400 l of water/acre
|Greasy spot||Chemical control:
• Zineb 75% WP @ 600-800 g in 300-400 l of water/acre
|Brown rot||Chemical control:
• Captan 75% WP @ 500 g in 6-8 l of water/acre
• Selection of proper site with adequate drainage and high budding (30 to 46 cm or above).
• Provision of an inner ring about 45 cm around the tree trunk to prevent moist soil. (Double ring method of irrigation)
• Avoid irrigation water from coming in direct contact with the tree trunk.
• Avoid injuries to crown roots or base of stem during cultural operations.
• Use resistant sour orange rootstocks for propagating economic varieties
• Use certified pathogen free bud wood for propagation.
• Control psyllids with insecticides like dimethoate or imidacloprid
• Applying Bordeaux paste or ZnSO4, CuSO4, lime (5:1:4) to a height of about 60 cm above the ground level at least once a year.
Note: The pesticide dosages and spray fluid volumes are based on high volume spray.
* Apply Trichoderma spp. and Pseudomonas fluorescens as seed/seedling/planting material, nursery treatment and soil application (if commercial products are used, check for label claim. However, biopesticides produced by farmers for own consumption in their fields, registration is not required).
** Pests of regional significance