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Ginger: Diseases and Symptoms

Soft rot

Disease symptoms
  • The infection starts at the collar region of the pseudo stem and progresses upwards as well as downwards.
  • Affected pseudo stem becomes water soaked and the rotting spreads to the rhizome resulting in soft rot. At a later stage root infection is also noticed.
  • Foliar symptoms appear as light yellowing of the tips of lower leaves which gradually spreads to the leaf blades.
  • In early stages, the middle portion of the leaves remain green while the margins become yellow.
  • The yellowing spreads to all leaves of the plant from the lower region upwards and is followed by drooping, withering and drying of pseudo Stems.
Survival and spread
  • The disease is soil-borne.
  • The fungus can survive in two ways: (a) in diseased rhizomes kept for seed, and (b) through resting structures like chlamydo spores and oospores that reach the soil from infected rhizomes.
  • The fungus multiplies with buildup of soil moisture with the onset of south west monsoon.
Favourable conditions
  • Younger sprouts are the most susceptible to the pathogen. Nematode infestation aggravates rhizome rot disease.
  • A high temperature above 30° C and high soil moisture are the important predisposing factors favouring the disease.
  • Waterlogging in the field due to poor drainage increases the intensity of the disease.

Bacterial wilt

Disease symptoms
  • Water soaked spots appear at the collar region of the pseudo stem and progresses both side upwards and downwards.
  • The first conspicuous symptom is mild drooping and curling of leaf margins of the lower leaves which spread upwards.
  • Yellowing starts from the lowermost leaves and gradually progresses to the upper leaves.
  • In the advanced stage, severe yellowing and wilting symptoms occurs.
  • The vascular tissues of the affected pseudo stems show dark streaks.
  • The affected pseudo stem and rhizome when pressed gently extrudes milky ooze from the vascular strands. Ultimately rhizomes get rotted.
Survival and spread
  • Bacterial wilt is a soil and seed borne disease that occurs during south west monsoon.
  • The bacteria are spread through soil, water, infected or contaminated rhizomes.
  • The bacteria enter the plant through wounds made in the roots during transplanting, through agricultural equipment’s, nematodes and insects.
Favourable conditions
  • Relatively high soil moisture and soil temperature
  • Disease, occurs during south west monsoon.

Leaf spot

Disease symptoms
  • The disease starts as water soaked spot and later turns as a white spot surrounded by dark brown margins and yellow halo.
  • The lesions enlarge and adjacent lesions coalesce to form necrotic areas.
Survival and spread
  • Spread through wind and rain splashes.
Favourable conditions
  • Disease is soil-borne; Noticed on the leaves from July to October; high humidity and temperature.

Storage rot

Disease symptom
  • Initially, disease appear as light yellowing of the tips of lower leaves which gradually spreads down to the leaf blade and leaf sheath along the margin.
  • The middle portion of the lamina remains green while the margins become yellow.
  • The yellowing spreads to all the leaves of plant from bottom upwards and is followed by drooping, withering and drying.
  • The collar region of the pseudo-stem shows pale translucent brown colour which becomes water soaked, due to destruction of parenchymatus tissues.
  • The infected plants can be easily pulled out from the rhizomes, the infection from the collar spreads to the rhizome gradually.
  • The rhizome has a discoloured appearance before rot sets in the fi bro vascular strands are not affected.
Survival and spread
  • The fungus has been reported to be carried in seed-pieces or soils which are the source of primary infection.
  • Secondary infection occurs by conidia
Favourable conditions
  • High rainfall and poor drained soil favour in development of disease

Fusarium yellows/ yellow disease

Disease symptoms
  • The infected plants remain yellow and stunted in growth.
  • The yellowing start from lower leaves.
  • From infection to total collapse is gradual.
  • Infected plants produce shriveled tubers and brown ground tissue.
Survival and spread
  • Infected seed pieces and soil are source of primary inoculum.
  • Resting spores i.e. chlamydo spores present in soil are source of secondary infection.
Favourable conditions
  • High rainfall and poor drained soil favour in development of disease.

Sheath blight / leaf blight

Disease symptoms
  • The lesions are usually observed on the leaf sheaths although leaf blades may also be affected.
  • Initially, lesions are small, ellipsoid or ovoid, and greenish-gray and usually develop near the water line in lowland fields.
  • Under favorable conditions, they enlarge and may coalesce to form bigger lesions with irregular outline and grayish-white center with dark brown borders.
  • The presence of several large spots on a leaf sheath usually causes the death of the whole leaf.
Survival and spread
  • Fungus survives in the soil for many years in the form of sclerotia and spreads through soil & infected rhizomes
Favourable conditions
  • The pathogen prefers warm wet weather and outbreaks typically occur in the early summer months most symptoms of the pathogen do not occur until late summer.

Dry rot

Disease symptoms
  • Symptom includes discolouration of rhizome surface by fungal mycelia accompanied by dry rotting.
Survival and spread
  • Soil and infected rhizome pieces are source of primary inoculum.
  • The fungus also produces resting structures (Chlamydospores) in the decomposing tissues of infected rhizomes. Therefore, tissues from infected crops remaining in the field serve as a reservoir of the fungus.
Favourable conditions
  • The pathogen is known to prefer warm wet weather, coupled with high soil moisture.

IPM for Ginger

To know the IPM practices for Ginger, click here.

Source: NIPHM and Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine & Storage



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