Kodo Millet is largely grown in the states of Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Maharashtra, Tamilnadu and Karnataka. It is also cultivated in the Jhum field of Arunachal Pradesh.
Sowing with onset of monsoon is beneficial. The sowing season is generally middle of June to end of July in different states. In Madhya Pradesh and Chattisgarh, last week of June to first week of July is the time for sowing.
Generally the Millets are grown in tropical as well as sub-tropical upto an altitude of 2,100m. It is a heat loving plant. It is grown where rainfall ranges from 500-900mm. Kodo Millet has a heavy water requirement which grows well in moderate rainfall of 50-60cm.
It has wide adaptability to different soil from very poor to very fertile and can tolerate a certain degree of alkalinity. The best soils are alluvial, loamy and sandy soil with good drainage. Kodo millet can be grown in gravelly and stony soil such as in the hilly region.
The first ploughing should be done deep with a soil turning plough at the onset of monsoon. Fine tilth is imperative for proper germination and crop establishment.
20-25cm row-to-row, 8-10cm plant-to-plant
10 kg per for line sowing; 15 kg per ha for broadcasting.
The seed should be treated with Agrosan G.N. or Thiram @ 2.5g/Kg of seed.
Treating seeds with Azospirullum brasilense (nitrogen fixing bacterium) and Aspergillus awamouri (phosphate solubalizing fungus) @ 25 g kg -1 is beneficial.
Line sowing at 3-4cm deep.
Seed should be sown in well prepared nursery beds during the month of May-July about 4 Kg of seed will give enough seedlings to transplant 1 ha of land. 3 to 4 week old seedlings should be transplanted two seedlings per hill at a distance of 25X8 cm or transplanted 2-3cm deep.
FYM-5 to 10 tonnes/ha. FYM should be applied one month before sowing.
Tamil nadu, Madhya Pradesh and Chattisgarh : 40 kg N and 20 kg P / ha
Other states : 20 kg each NPK / ha
NE states : 60:30:30 NPK / ha
In hilly areas it is grown mixed with Soybean.
Madhya Pradesh: Kodo millet + Pigeon pea (2:1 ratio); Kodo millet + Green gram/black gram (2:1 ratio); Kodo millet + Soybean (2:1 ratio).
The inter-cultivation and weeding should be done with hand hoe, three hoeing would be sufficient to control the weeds in problem areas.
Head smut caused by Sorosporium paspali-thunbergi is a major disease. The pathogen being seed borne can be checked by seed treatment with Chlorothalonil or Mancozeb @ 2g/kg. The variety GPUK 3 is tolerant to head smut
Blast : Infection of this disease may occur in the seedling stage with gray green to yellow lesions on leaf blades. To control this disease, the seed should be treated before sowing with Agrosan GN or Cerasan @ 2.5 g/Kg of seed. Resistant variety should be cultivated.
Seedling blight : Serious disease and cause heavy damage. 0.02 % solution of Dithane U-45 should be sprayed.
Stem Borer/ Hairy Caterpillar/Grass hopper/Caterpiller.
Diazinen (5%) or Thiaden(4%) granules @ 20Kg/ha, to control Borer Hairy caterpillar & Grass hopper spray Carbaryl dust @ 20Kg/ha may be used.