||Tejovati, Tumbru (fruit)
||Tejbal, Nepali dhaniya
||Stem bark, fruits and seeds
- Fruits, seeds, and bark of tejbal are used as aromatic tonic in dyspepsia and fever.
- Fruits and seeds are beneficial in dental troubles, thus used to prepare dental paste and powder.
- Tender twigs are used to brush teeth and used as a remedy for toothache.
- The essential oil from fruits (known as Wartara oil) has deodorant and antiseptic properties.
- Timru is an evergreen, thorny shrub or small tree, attaining a height up to 6 m.
- Leaves are 4–20 cm long, imparipinnate, pungent, and aromatic with glabrous, narrowly winged petiole having two stipular prickles at the base.
- Leaflets are lanceolate, glabrous on the underside, and occur in two to six pairs.
- The plant can be recognized by its shrubby habit, dense foliage, with pungent aromatic taste, prickled trunk and branches, and small red, subglobose fruits.
- Flowers occur in dense terminal or sparse axillary panicles and are green to yellow in colour.
- Calyx consists of six to eight sub-acute lobes.
- Stamens are about six to eight in number. Ripe carpels or follicles are usually solitary, pale red, and tubercled.
- Seeds are globose, shining, and black.
- Flowering occurs from March to May, while fruiting occurs from July to August.
- The species is found in hot valleys of subtropical Himalayas, from trans- Indus areas to Bhutan, up to an altitude of 2400 m, and between 700 m and 1000 m in the Khasi Hills.
- It also occurs in the hills of Ganjam and Vishakapatnam at an altitude of about 1500 m.
Zanthoxylum armatum - plant
Climate and soil
- The plant is adapted to subtropical climate of lower warm valleys of the Himalayas with sufficient rainfall.
- It grows well in open pastures and secondary scrub forests.
- Loamy or clayey soil rich in organic content is preferred for its cultivation.
- Freshly harvested seeds are best for the large-scale cultivation of Zanthoxylum species. Mature seeds can be collected in June–July.
- In the absence of sufficient seeds, terminal stem cuttings may be used as propagules.
- The crop can be raised by developing a nursery or by directly sowing in the main field. The seeds are sown in August– September in polybags (nursery) or main field.
- Stem cuttings may also be planted in the nursery during monsoon in July–August.
- The seeds germinate in 20–30 days after sowing.
- The seedlings attain a height of 20–30 cm by June–July, when they can be transplanted to the main field.
Propagule rate and pretreatment
- About 2–3 kg seeds are required to raise a nursery for plantation on 1 hectare.
- Direct sowing may require about 30–50 kg seeds per hectare at a spacing of 50 cm × 50 cm.
- No seed treatment is necessary before sowing.
- However, stored seeds may require cold stratification for up to three months and may germinate in February– March.
Planting in the field
Land preparation and fertilizer application
- Land may be ploughed two to three times using disc harrow and cultivator to make it friable and weed-free.
- About 10– 12 tonnes per hectare of FYM (farmyard manure) should be mixed with the soil as a basal dose before transplantation.
Transplanting and optimum spacing
- After 10–12 months of growth in the nursery, transplanting in the field can be done during May–June if irrigation facilities are available.
- Otherwise, it is done in July–August (monsoon season) under rain-fed conditions.
- A spacing of 50 cm × 50 cm is recommended, which accommodates about 40 000 plants per hectare.
Interculture and maintenance practices
- Weeding should be carried out during the initial establishment phase, 30–45 days after transplanting, and again at 60–80 days after transplanting.
- Later, weeding may be carried out only as and when required.
- The plant can be grown as a mono crop as well as a mixed crop with herbaceous species.
- The plant requires frequent irrigation during the establishment stage.
- Once established, the plants are able to survive in rain-fed conditions and only life-support irrigation is required during the summer months.
Disease and pest control
- The crop is generally free from any disease, insect or nematode attack, and physiological disorders.
Zanthoxylum armatum - nursery
Crop maturity and harvesting
- Flowering appears on five-year-old plants in March–May.
- Fruiting occurs in July–August.
- The crop, thus, takes five to seven years to mature.
- Fruits are collected in May–June.
- Stem pieces, if needed, may be cut during January–February before the flowers appear.
- The herbage and fruits should be dried in shade.
- The fruits may be cut into pieces for drying and extracting seeds.
- Well-dried seeds are stored in damp-proof containers.
- The yield of fresh and dry fruits is approximately 20 quintals per hectare and 6.50 quintals per hectare, respectively.
Source : Agro-techniques of selected medicinal plants
© 2006–2019 C–DAC.All content appearing on the vikaspedia portal is through collaborative effort of vikaspedia and its partners.We encourage you to use and share the content in a respectful and fair manner. Please leave all source links intact and adhere to applicable copyright and intellectual property guidelines and laws.