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ICAR Rabi season Agro Advisory for Himachal Pradesh

Himachal Pradesh is predominantly a hilly state, where majority area (about 80 %) is rainfed. During Rabi season wheat among cereals, chickpea & lentil among pulses and sarson among vegetables are predominant crops. Among vegetables, cole crops, peas, onion, and garlic are the main crops. Some important advisories to harness optimum returns are advocated for farmers.

Wheat

  • HS 542, HPW 360 cultivars of wheat are recommended for low and mid hill zone of the state under early sown conditions (Up to 20th October) whereas HPW 155, HPW 349, HPW 249, HPW 236, VL 907, HS 507, HPW 368 are recommended for timely sown conditions (15 October- 15 November) in these zones. For late sown conditions (up to December end) VL 892, HPW 373 can be grown in low and mid hill conditions. HPW 155 and HPW 236 are recommended cultivars of wheat for high hill zone and Saptdhara and Him Pratham (DH 114) for high snow-covered areas under timely sown conditions (1-15th October).
  • The sowing should be done in lines with spacing of 22 cm with seed rate of 100 Kg/ha and 150 Kg /ha for timely and late sown conditions respectively. Before sowing treat the seed with Bavistin @ 2.5 g/kg of seed. Apply full quantity of SSP (375Kg), MOP (50 Kg) along with 50 per cent of Urea (130 Kg) along with FYM at the time of sowing while remaining half quantity of Urea should be given at the time of crown root initiation or occurrence of first rain.
  • Since, weed causes heavy economic loss to the wheat crop and to avoid these losses, Vesta @ 400g/ ha or Chlodinafop @ 400g/ha followed by 2, 4- D @ 1.25 kg/ha after 2-3 days of Clodinofop spray are recommended for chemical management of weed problems. The spray should be done after the appearance of 2-3 leaf stage in weeds.
  • Among diseases yellow rust and Karnal bunt are major problem in wheat crop which can be managed by the spray of Tilt @ 1ml per liter of water at the appearance of the symptoms. Termite is major pest among all pests in this crop and seed treatment with with chloropyriphos 20 EC @ 4ml/Kg seed along with soil incorporation of chloropyriphos 20 EC @ 2 L mixing with 25 Kg sand/ha at the time of sowing is recommended for the management of this pest.

Chickpea

  • Himachal chana -1, Himachal chana-2, GPF-2, Palam chana-1, HPG 17 are the recommended cultivars of chickpea. Treat the seeds with fungicide (Bavistin @2.5gm/Kg of seed) and biofertilizers like Rhizobium and Phosphorus solubilizing bacteria before sowing. Go for sowing of crop at proper soil moisture. Mid October is the best time for it’s sowing, and sowing should be done in lines with 30 cm line spacing for all cultivars except HPG 17 for which line spacing of 50 cm is recommended with optimum depth of 10-12.5 cm. The seed rate for small & medium sized seeded chickpea cultivars like Himachal chana -1, Himachal chana-2, GPF-2, Palam chana-1 is 40-45 Kg/ha however, for bold seeded cultivars like HPG 17, seed rate of 80Kg/ha is recommended. Urea 65 Kg, SSP 375Kg and 50Kg MOP per ha is recommended for the cultivation of chickpea. The full dose of SSP, MOP and half dose of Urea should be applied at the time of sowing while reaming half dose of Urea should be given to crop after 4-5 weeks of sowing.
  • For the management of pod borer in chickpea, spray the crop with Carbaryl 50 WP @1250 gm/ha and apply bavistin @1g / L of water for the management of Acochyta blight.

Lentil

  • Vipasha and Markandey are the recommended cultivars of Lentil which can be sown between October end to mid November with seed rate of 25-30Kg/ha. Urea 22Kg and SSP 250Kg/ha is recommended fertilizers which can be applied at the time of sowing.

Brown sarson and Gobhi Sarson

  • KBS 3, HPBS 1 and HPN 3, ONK 1, GSC 7 are the recommended cultivars of Brown and Gobhi Sarson respectively. First fortnight of October is the best time for the cultivation of these crops.
  • The seed rate of 6Kg/ha is required, and sowing should be done with spacing of 30 cm line to line and 10 cm plant to plant. For brown sarson, apply full does of SSP (250Kg), MOP (65 Kg), Gipsum (140 Kg) along with 50% of Urea (65Kg) at the time of sowing while remaing dose of Urea should be applied before flowering. For Gobhi sarson, apply full does of SSP (375Kg), MOP (65 Kg) and 50% dose of Urea (125Kg) during sowing time and rest of Urea should be applied in two splits after 60 days and 80-90 days after sowing.
  • Two manual weeding are required between 40-70 days of sowing for the management of weeds. Spray of Pendimethalin (Stomp 30 EC) @ 1.5 Kg /ha as a pre-emergence or Isoproturon @ 1Kg/ha in 700-800 l of water as post emergence (30-35 days of sowing) is recommended for the chemical method of weed management.
  • Aphid is the major pest associated with this crop, which can be managed by the spray of methyl Demeton 25 EC or dimethoate 30 EC @ 1ml/L of water. 

Winter vegetable 

Cole Crops (cauliflower, cabbage, and broccoli)

  • Nursery sowing of cauliflower hybrids (Gibount, Fusiyama, Casper RZ, Swati, Shweta, Bio pearl white) in August-September & July -August (Mid group) and (Pahuja-71 & IAHS-9803) in OctoberNovember & September (Late group) in low & Mid hills and AprilMay (Late group) in high hills of HP for healthy seedlings on raised beds or poly trays or under protected structure.
  • Nursery sowing of Cabbage hybrids (Pusa cabbage hybrid 1, Pusa cabbage hybrid-81, Varun, Pushkar) should be completed in August–September in low and mid hills for healthy seedlings on raised beds or poly trays or under protected structure, while transplanting should be completed from October – January. Nursery sowing of Broccoli varieties/ hybrids (Palam Samridhi, Palam Haritika, Palam Kanchan, Palam Vachitra, KTS-I and Punjab Broccoli-I.) should be completed in September to October in low & Mid hills.
  • Apply FYM@ 200 -250 q per ha at the time of field preparation, NPK @120-180: 75-80: 60-75 kg per ha. Full dose of phosphorus and one-third of N and half of potassium should be applied at the time of transplanting. Remaining part of N should be top dressed at an interval of one month each while half of potassium is to be applied along with N during second top dressing. Borex can be added in the soil for the management of browning in cauliflower
  • First light irrigation should be given immediately after transplanting of the seedlings and regular maintenance of optimum moisture is essential during growth and curd development. The harvesting of curds is to be done as soon as the curds attain prime maturity and compactness
  • Harvesting of broccoli heads at correct time i.e., before the buds open and when the bud clusters are compact
  • Damping off of seedlings is major problem in cole crops and for its control applies Mancozeb 25 g + carbendazim 10 g per 10 litres of water. Seed treatment with hot water (50 0C) and streptocycline (1g/ 10 L water) for 30 minutes each is advised for protection against black rot. In case of attack of aphids and cabbage butterfly, malathion @ 1ml/ L can be applied. Cypermethin @1mlL can be applied for protection against cut worms at early stage.

Garden Pea

  • The sowing of important early pea varieties (Arkel, Palm Triloki, GS-10, AS-10) should be completed in September- October in low and mid hills & March- June in high hills.
  • The sowing of main season pea varieties viz., PB-89, Him Palam Matar-1, AP-3, GS-10 should be completed in late October – November in low and mid hills & October – Mid November in high hills of HP.
  • Application of FYM@ 20 -30 tons, 20-50 kg nitrogen, 30- 60 kg phosphorus and 30-60 kg potassium per ha should be applied at the time of sowing based on fertility status of the soil.
  • First hoeing and earthing up should be completed after 2-3 weeks of sowing and second at flower initiation for higher yield. Preemergence application of Alachlor or Pendimethalin @ 3litres /ha is recommended to check the weeds in the initial growth stages
  • Irrigations before flowering, during flowering and at pod formation stages are necessary for quality pods and higher yield.
  • Picking of pods should be done either early in the morning or late in the afternoon. Picking should not be done during mid-day which deteriorates the quality of pea pod due to heat.
  • Powdery mildew is serious problem in peas which can be controlled using karathane 0.5 ml or wettable sulphur 2.0 g or hexaconazole 0.5 ml per L of water. For protection against leaf miner and pod borer lambda cyhalothrin 0.75 ml and malathion 2 ml per L of water can be applied, respectively.

Onion and Garlic

  • Nursery sowing of onion varieties (Palam Lohit, Nasik Red, Agrifound Dark Red) should be completed in mid-October – mid November in low & mid hill and transplanting should be completed in December- January (low & mid hill).
  • The recommended varieties of garlic are GHC-1, Agrifound Parvati, Large Segmented and Solan Selection
  • Apply FYM@ 200-300 q/ha, nitrogen @ 60-150 kg, phosphorus @ 35-150 kg and potassium@ 25-120kg per hectare depending upon the soil test, cultivar and growing season. Apply 50% nitrogen and entire quantity of phosphorus and potash at the time of transplanting or bulb sowing. Remaining half of the nitrogen is top dressed 5-6 weeks after transplanting.
  • Onions are ready for dry bulb harvesting when the tops get dried (or at neck fall stage) and bulbs are mature. Harvesting should be completed in last week of May, which increases storage life of bulbs.

Root & Leafy Vegetables

  • Sowing of root vegetables (Radish, Carrot & Turnip) should be completed in: August-September (Low hill), July – October (Mid hill) and March- August (High hill).
  • The recommended varieties of Radish (Pusa Himani, Japanese white, White Icicle & Early Menu White), Carrot (Nantes, Solan, Rachna) and Turnip (Purple Top White Globe, Golden Ball, Snowball) should be sown
  • Application of FYM @ 100 q/ha, nitrogen @ 50-90 kg, Phosphorus @ 50-80kg & Potash 40-80Kg/ha. Full dose of FYM, P, K and half of N should be applied at the time of sowing and remaining part of N should be top-dressed in two equal instalments at an interval of one month.
  • Sowing of leafy vegetables (Spinach, Beet leaf, fenugreek & coriander) should be completed August-November & February -March in low hill, July- October & February- April (Mid hill) and March- June in high hill
  • The recommended varieties of Spinach are (Pusa Harit, Banerjee Gaint), beat leaf (Virginia Savoy, Long Standing), Fenugreek (IC74, Palam Soumya, Kasuri Methi, Pusa Kasuri) and Coriander (Mahak and local land races) should be planted.

Fruit crops

Apple

  • Prepare tree basins and apply recommended dose of FYM (100 kg/ plant), Nitrogen (1.5 kg Urea per tree basin), Phosphorous (SSP 2 kg per plant) and potash (MOP 1.7 kg per plant) for plants of age more than 10 years. Complete dose of Potash and phosphorous should be given at the Time of basin preparation along with FYM during December- January.
  • Half dose of Nitrogen (750 g per tree) should be given 2-3 weeks before flowering and remaining quantity (750 g per tree) should be applied after one month.
  • The fallen leaves of apple should be collected and decomposed in a compost pit or spray of 5% urea (10 kg in 200lt water) may be done on orchard floor on fallen leaves to ensure fast decomposition of infected leaves.
  • During winters (November- December), expose the root system of infected trees and cut the infected portion and apply Bordeaux paint / chaubatia paste for the control of White root rot.
  • Remove all dead, diseased braches at the time of pruning and apply Bordeaux paint/ chaubatia paste or any other Copper fungicidebased paint.
  • Scarify wounds near collar region and apply Bordeaux paint/ chaubatia paste or any other Copper fungicide-based paint during winter season.
  • For the management of canker, scarify the diseased portion upto healthy region and apply Bordeaux paint/ chaubatia paste or any other Copper fungicide-based paint during winter season.
  • Apply a mixture of lime + copper sulphate + linseed oil (30kg lime+ 500 gm copper sulphate + 500 ml linseed oil in 100 L water) on stems upto a height of 2-3 ft from the ground level during OctoberNovember for protection against sun burning.
  • Spray Horticulture Mineral Oil (2%) (20ml/L water) for the control of sanjose scale at green tip stage of apple bud.
  • Spray melathion 50 EC (1ml/L water) or oxy-demeton methyl 25 EC (1ml/L water) just after fruit set to kill crawlers and newly settled stage.
  • Place Phorate Granules (25-30gm Thimet/Phorate 10G) or carbofuran (70-80 gm Furadon 3G) at 5cm depth in rhizosphere in April and October to control woolly apple aphid in non-fruiting trees.
  • Drench with Chlorpyriphos 20 EC (4ml/L water) in collar region during October-November using at least 5 L of pesticide emulsion per tree in collar region for the control of woolly apple aphid. Spray with Chlorpyriphos 20 EC (2ml/L water) or quinalphos 25 EC (2ml/L water) in September- October to check aerial population of woolly apple aphid.
  • For stem borer, clear the hole with flexible wire, insert cotton wick soaked in petrol/ dimethoate 30 EC (1ml/L water) and plug the hole with mud.
  • Drench the tree basin with Chlorpyriphos (5ml/L water) during November- December for the control of root borer.
  • Three to four honeybee hives to be kept per hectare in apple orchards for effective pollination during flowering period. Place the beehives at 5-10 per bloom.
  • To check the deficiency of micronutrients, give a spray of micronutrient mixture (2.5 gm/L).
  • For the management of scab/ powdery mildew give a spray of dodine (1gm/L water) or fluxapyroxad + difenconazole (30ml/100 L water) at green tip stage. 

Recommendations against Hail damage:

  • Spray 100 gm Carbendazim or 600 gm Mancozeb in 200 L of water immediately after hail but within 24 hours.
  • Spray 200 gm Boric acid + 500 gm Zinc sulphate + 250 gm Quick lime in 200 L of water within 3-4 days of hailstorm.
  • After 10 to 12 days, a spray of micro-nutrients mixtures like Agromin, Multiplex or Microvit @ 400 to 600 g per 200 L of water should be given. 

Stone fruits (Plum, Peach, Apricots, Nectarines)

  • Preparation of tree basins and application of recommended dose of FYM (40kg/plant), Nitrogen (1 kg Urea per tree basin), Phosphorous (SSP 1.5 kg per plant) and potash (MOP 1.2 kg per plant) for plants of age more than 7 years. Complete dose of Potash and phosphorous should be given at the Time of basin preparation along with FYM during December- January.
  • Half dose of Nitrogen (500 gm per tree) should be given 2-3 weeks before flowering and remaining quantity (500 gm per tree) should be applied after one month.
  • For the management of leaf curl due to fungus, give a spray of copper oxychloride (3gm/L) during dormant period (DecemberJanuary) and spray of carbendazim (1gm/L at pink bud stage.
  • For the management of leaf curl due to aphid, apply methyldemeton or dimethoate (1ml/L) at pink bud stage.
  • Apply Mashobra paste after scarifying the gum lesion during dormancy.

Mango

  • Apply sticky bands or alkathene sheet around tree trunk (0.5 mt above ground level) to prevent crawling of mealy bug nymphs/ adults. Apply clay paste at the end of alkathene sheet to plug the entry points.
  • Remove diseased braches/ leaves/ inflorescence and spray with potassium metabisulhite (120 gm/200 L water) in the month of October and repeat in January for the control of mango malformation.
  • Give a spray of wettable sulphur (5gm/L)/karathane / carbendazim / hexaconazole (1gm/L) at flowering and after fruit set.

Citrus

  • For control of bacterial canker, remove the dead portions and apply copper oxychloride @ 3g/ L of water.

Animal Husbandry

  • Maintain hygiene in sheds to keep animals free from ectoparasites. Spray insecticides like deltamethrin (@4ml/L of water) in the premises if required. Insecticides like Deltamethrin, Amitraj or Flumethrin can be used to treat the infested animals after consultation with a veterinarian.
  • Vaccinate your animals against Foot and Mouth disease, Hemorrhagic septicemia and black quarter. Vaccination is done free of cost by Department of Animal Health and Breeding at regular intervals.
  • Wash your hands and clean the udder of animal with antiseptic solution before milking to prevent mastitis. Maintain hygiene in animal sheds. Practice full hand milking. Regularly provide Vitamin E and selenium fortified mineral mixture to dairy animals.
  • Feed mineral mixture to dairy animals @ 50g/animal/day to build strong immunity, boost milk production and maintain reproductive health.
  • Plant perennial grasses like Napier bajra hybrid, Setaria and Guinea grass in waste lands or field bunds in the month of July-August or February- March. These grasses provide nutritious green fodder (16-20 quintals per Kanal) in 3-4 cuttings.
  • Silage provides nutritious alternative when there is scarcity of fodder particularly in the months of October-December and April –June and maintains the milk production. Prepare silage in Kharif and Rabi season.
  • Supplement the diet of dairy animals with Urea Molasses Mineral blocks. These blocks are cheap source of energy, protein, and minerals. Keep the block for licking (10-15 minutes) at the time of milking in morning and evening.
  • Grow Azolla round the year as it is a nutritive and cheap organic feed substitute for dairy cattle. It provides high quality protein and micro minerals like selenium and zinc. Cost of feeding can be reduced by including azolla in animal diet thus making dairy farming more profitable.
  • Provide balanced concentrate ration @ 1 kg per 3 L of milk production+ 1 kg for maintenance per day. Prepare balanced concentrate ration by using 40% cereal, 30% oil cake, 27% wheat bran, 2% mineral mixture and 1% salt.

Source : ICAR Rabi Agro-Advisory for Farmers



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