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Rain deficit moisture stress management in spices

This topic covers crop management practices to manage rain deficit moisture stress in spices.

Black pepper

Late onset of monsoon by 15 days
Established plantations
  • Mulch the basins & interspaces with green leaves.
  • Spray lime 1% or kaolinite on foliage to reduce transpiration as well as heat load.
  • Postpone new planting/gap filling
  • Irrigate the crop @ 8–10 litres/day/vine (drip irrigation) or 50 litres/week/vine (hose irrigation)
  • To prevent termite attack on live supports, drench the soil with chlorpyriphos 0.075% and spray on support up to 1 m height; repeat spray after 21 days if necessary
Very young plantations
  • Mulch the basins & interspaces with green leaves/coir pith compost.
  • Protect young vines by providing sufficient shade.
Late onset of monsoon by 30 days
Established plantations
  • Mulch the basins & interspaces with green leaves.
  • Spray lime 1% or kaolinite on foliage to reduce transpiration as well as heat load.
  • Postpone new planting/gap filling
  • Irrigate the crop @ 8–10 litres/day/vine (drip irrigation) or 50 litres/week/vine (hose irrigation)
  • To prevent termite attack on live supports, drench the soil with Chlorpyriphos 0.075% and spray on support up to 1 m height; repeat spray after 21 days if necessary
Very young plantations
  • Mulch the basins & interspaces with green leaves/coir pith compost.
  • Protect young vines by providing sufficient shade.
  • Irrigate the crop @ 5–8 litres/day/vine (drip irrigation) or 25 litres/week/vine (hose irrigation)
Drought during vegetative / reproductive stage
  • Provide hose irrigation @ 35-40 litres/vine/week or 8–10 litres /vine/day (drip irrigation) till monsoon is resumed.
  • Apply organic manures like FYM @ 10 kg/vine and mulch the basin with green leaves (10 kg/vine)/coir pith compost (2 kg/vine)
  • Postpone new planting/gap filling
  • To prevent termite attack on live supports, drench the soil with chlorpyriphos 0.075% and spray on support up to 1 m height; repeat spray after 21 days if necessary
Terminal
drought
  • Mulch the basins & interspaces with green leaves/coir pith compost.
  • Protect young vines by providing sufficient shade.
  • Irrigate the crop @ 5-8 litres/day/vine
  • o prevent termite attack on live supports, drench the soil with chlorpyriphos 0.075% and spray on support up to 1 m height; repeat spray after 21 days if necessary

Cardamom

Late onset of monsoon by 15 days
  • Slash the weeds and apply as mulch
  • Avoid new planting till monsoon sets in
  • Provide drip @ 8 litres/clump/day (once in 10-12 days) or sprinkler irrigation (4 hours per day equivalent to 25 mm of rain)
  • Provide adequate shade for young plants
Late onset of monsoon by 30 days
  • Slash the weeds and apply as mulch
  • Avoid new planting till monsoon sets in
  • Provide drip @ 8 litres/clump/day (once in 10-12 days) or sprinkler irrigation (4 hours per day equivalent to 25 mm of rain)
  • Provide adequate shade for young plants

Drought during vegetative /reproductive stage
(Cardamom is a perennial crop, and vegetative and reproductive
phases occur simultaneously)

  • Provide drip irrigation @ 8 litres/clump/day (once in 10-12 days) or sprinkler irrigation (4 hours per day equivalent to 25 mm of rain)
  • Apply green mulch
  • Provide adequate shade for young plants
  • Remove old and unproductive suckers
Terminal drought
  • Provide drip irrigation @ 8 litres/clump/day (once in 10-12 days) or sprinkler irrigation (4 hours per day equivalent to 25 mm of rain)
  • Apply green mulch
  • Provide adequate shade for young plants
  • Remove old and unproductive suckers

Ginger and Turmeric

Late onset of monsoon by 15 days
  • Provide thick mulch cover with green leaves/coir pith compost.
  • Growing suitable intercrops for shade
Late onset of monsoon by 30 days
  • Cultivate short duration varieties
  • Growing suitable intercrops for shade

Drought during vegetative /reproductive stage

  • Irrigate the crop weekly once equivalent to 5 – 10 mm of rain
  • Apply green leaf/coir pith compost mulch
Drought during rhizome
formation and development
  • Irrigate the crop weekly once equivalent to 5 – 10 mm of rain
  • Apply green leaf/coir pith compost mulch
  • Ginger can be harvested and used for vegetable purpose
Terminal drought
  • Harvest the crop

Nutmeg

Late onset of monsoon by 15 days
  • Provide thick mulch cover with green leaves/coir pith compost around basin.
  • Provide adequate shade for young plants
Late onset of monsoon by 30 days
  • Irrigate the plant @ 50 to 100 litres/plant/week and apply green mulch
  • Provide adequate shade for young plants

Drought during reproductive stage
Nutmeg is a perennial crop, and vegetative
and reproductive phases occur simultaneously

  • Irrigate the plant @ 50 to 100 litres/plant/week and apply green mulch
  • Provide adequate shade for young plants
Terminal drought
  • Irrigate the plant @ 50 to 100 litres/plant/week and apply green mulch
  • Provide adequate shade for young plants

Source : NHM

3.05309734513
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