T17 2019/10/18 10:00:9.250230 GMT+0530
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Apple: Crop Stage-wise IPM

This topic covers the Information related to Crop Stage-wise IPM for Apple

Management Activity

Pre planting*

Nutrients • Pits of 1 meter cube are dug in square system during summer season and kept open for controlling soil born pests.
• Soils of different horizons should be analysed to know the inherent fertility and soil condition of the field.
• The fertilizer dose should be based upon soil fertility, type of soil, kind and age of trees, cultural practices, climate and crop load.
• Application of manures and fertilizers start right from planting of an orchard at the time of filling of pits.
• In an orchard of optimal fertility, N, P and K may be applied in the ratio 70: 30: 70 g/year/tree.
Weeds · Deep ploughing followed by cross harrowing the field before planting to destroy existing weeds in the field.

Planting*

Nutrients • Pits should be filled with a mixture of pond silt, red soil and farmyard manure.
• Two-three kilos of bone meal or super phosphate per pit should be applied.
Weeds ·  Adopt intercropping and recommended agronomic practices.
Pests, nematode, soil borne pathogens and other diseases • Grow resistant/tolerant varieties viz.,: Emra, Red Free, Ambstraking, Ambroyal, Ambrich and Ambred in the endemic areas for controlling scab and Maharaji Chunth and Golden Chinese (apple cultivars),Yantarka Altaskya, Dolgoe (crab apple cultivars) for controlling powdery mildew disease
Scab and powdery mildew • Use healthy infestation-free plants.
• Aphids usually spread through infested stocks, avoid planting infested stocks.
Woolly apple aphid • Use resistant root-stocks belonging to Malling Merton series.
• Ecological engineering with buckwheat attracts parasitoid, Aphelinus mali

Vegetative stage 1st year onwards

Nutrients • The dose should be stabilized (700: 350: 700 g N: P: K/tree) after 10 years of age. These applications may be supplemented with FYM @10 Kg per tree in the first year and increase as the age of the tree with a maximum of 100 Kg.
• In off years, the fertilizer dose of NPK may be reduced to 500 g, 250 g and 400 g, respectively. In bearing trees, FYM along with P and K should be applied during December-January. Nitrogen is applied during February-March, 2 to 3 weeks before bud break. The Nitrogen can be applied in two split doses, first dose 2-3 weeks before bud break and the second one, one month after flowering.
• The fertilizers should be broadcasted in the tree basins 30 cm away from the tree trunk up to the canopy drip line and mixed well in the soil.
Weeds Cultural control:
• Regular weeding should be done in the tree basin.
• Regular mowing of weeds between tree rows should be done to check the weeds.
• Ploughing between tree rows.
Chemical control:
• Apply paraquat dichloride 24% SL @ 1300 ml in 280-400 l of water/acre as post-emergence and direct between rows at 2-3 leaf stage of weeds to control grasses and broad-leaved weeds in the orchards.
White rot/root rot** Chemical control:
• For root rot, make 5-10 trunk injections @ 2 g/tree

Reproductive

Nutrients • In case of any nutritional deficiency observed at flowering and fruiting, it should be corrected immediately by foliar application of that particular nutrient.
Weeds • Keep the orchard weed free by adopting cultural practices as stated in vegetative stage.

Tight cluster stage

San Jose scale Cultural control:
• Grow attractant flowers for natural enemies: viz., sunflower family, carrot family plants, buckwheat
Mechanical control:
• Pruning of infested branches and twigs
• Collection and destruction of pruned infested material.
Biological control:
• Parasitoids such as Encarsia perniciosi and Aphytis diaspidis cause effective parasitization.
• Coccinellid predators such as Chilocorus infernalis, Chilocorus rubidus, Pharoscymnus fl exibilis check the pest infestation to some extent.
Chemical control:
• Spray malathion 50% EC @ 600-800 ml in 600-800 l of water/acre or oxydemetom-methyl 25% EC @ 1680-2240 ml in 600-800 l of water/acre or lime sulphur 22% SC @ 800-2000 ml/acre (use 2% pre-blossom and 1% postblossom in conventional sprayers)
Phytophagous apple mites Biological control:
• Conserve predators such as Chrysoperla zastrowi sillemi, anthocorid bug, predatory mite (Amblyseius fallacis), coccinellid (Stethorus punctum) etc.
Chemical control:
• Spray bifenthrin 8% SC @ 200 ml in 160 l of water/acre or fenazaquin 10% EC @ 160 ml in 400 l of water/acre or hexythiozox 5.45% W/W EC @ 0.4 ml/l of water and use spray fl uid of 10 l/tree or malathion 50% EC @ 600-800 ml in 600-800 l of water/acre or propargite 57% EC @ 0.5-1 ml/l of water and use spray fl uid of 10 l/tree or spiromesifen 22.9% SC @ 120 ml in 400 l of water/ acre
Stem borer Cultural control:
• Keeps the orchard healthy following good agricultural practices.
• Kill the stem borer larvae by inserting a flexible wire inside the hole and plug the hole with the cotton wick soaked in petrol and seal it with mud.
Mechanical control:
• Prune and burn all attacked shoot and branches during winter.
Chemical control:
• Spray dimethoate 30% EC @ 594-792 ml in 600-800 l of water/acre
Lepidopteran caterpillars (Indian gypsy moth) Mechanical control:
• Egg mass covered with yellowish hair which is easily visible should be hunted and destroyed (between August-March).
• Put a burlap at the base of tree trunk to provide shelter for larvae during day time and examine frequently to destroy the larvae underneath the burlap
Scab Cultural control:
• Clean cultivation, collection and destruction of fallen leaves and pruned materials in winter to prevent the sexual cycle.
• Collect and burn the infected plant debris
• Follow proper trimming and pruning of twigs and branches followed by burning.
• Apply urea (2 Kg/acre at pre-leaf fall stage spring and dolomitic lime (2.5 ton/acre) in autumn over fallen leaves to accelerate decomposition.
Chemical control:
• Spray bitertanol 25% WP @ 0.75 g/l of water and use spray fl uid of 10 l/tree or captan 50% WP @ 1000 g in 300-400 l of water/acre or captan 75% WP @ 666.8 g/ acre in water required to distribute 10-20 l/tree or carbendazim 50% WP @ 1000 g/acre and 10 l spray fl uid/tree or chlorothalonil 75% WP@ 200 g in 100 l of water and 10 l of spray fl uid/tree (recommended for use immediately after dormancy up to greentip stage) or difenaconazole 25 EC @ 15 ml in 100 l of water (spray volume depending upon the tree size and spray equipment used) or dithianan 75% WP @ 720 g in 920 l of water/acre or dodine 65% WP @ 0.75 g/l and use spray fl uid of 10 l of spray fluid/tree or fenarimol 12% EC @ 40 ml in 100 l of water and 10 l of spray fl uid/tree or fl usilazole 40% EC @ 0.1 ml/l of water and 10 l of spray fluid/acre or hexaconazole 5% EC @ 50 ml/100 l of water (spray volume depending upon the tree size and spray equipment used) or mancozeb 75% WG @ 3 g/l of water and use spray fl uid of 10 l/tree or myclobutanil 10% WP @ 0.4 ml/l of water and use spray fl uid of 10 l/tree or penconazole 10% EC @ 50 ml in 100 l of water and 10 l of spray fl uid/tree or sulphur 80% WG @ 750-1000 g in 300-400 l of water/acre or thiophanate methyl 70% WP @ 286 g in 300-400 l of water/acre or zineb 75% WP @ 600-800 g in 300-400 l of water/acre or ziram 80% WP @ 600- 800 g in 300-400 l of water/acre

Pink bud stage

Scab and core rot •        Same as above
Powdery mildew Cultural control:
• Sanitation of orchard
• Resistant varieties
• Removal of over wintering infected terminals by pruning (6-8” below the infection) is good for reducing the inoculum.
• Practice trimming and pruning to reduce the humidity.
Chemical control:
• Spray aureofungin 46.15% w/v SP @ 0.5 ml/l of water and use spray fluid of 10 l/tree or dinocap 48% EC @ 3 ml/l of water and 10 l of spray fluid/tree or lime sulphur 22% SC @ 800-2000 ml/acre (use 2% pre-blossom and 1% postblossom in conventional sprayers) or sulphur 80% WP @ 1000-2000 g in 300- 400 l of water/acre
Mites, blossom thrips and Lepidopteran insects Cultural control:
• Apart from aforesaid practices, regular monitoring is mandatory for moths,
• For codling moth: Use synthetic codlemone for mating disruption at a height of 6-8 feet or Dispensers should be deployed within 1 meter of the top of the canopy prior to spring emergence during late may to 3rd week of July. .
Biological control:
• Conserve coccinellids, anthocorids, lygaeid, predatory thrips etc.
Chemical control:
• For thrips, spray thiacloprid 21.7% SC @ 0.4-0.5 ml/l of water (spray fluid depends on the size of tree)
• For mites, same as above

Petal fall/pea stage

Scab, powdery mildew and Alternaria blight •        Same as above
San Jose scale, mites •        Same as above
Fruit development (Walnut size)
Scab, Marssonina blotch and Alternaria blight •        Same as above
Phytophagousmites •        Same as above

Fruit development (20 days after walnut stage)

Woolly apple aphid Biological control:
• Conserve parasitoids such as Aphelinus mali
• Conserve predators such as Coccinella septumpunctata, Chrysoperla zastrowi sillemi, Menochilus sexmaculatus, Syrphus confrator
Chemical control:
• Apply carbofuran 3% CG @ 166 g/tree or phorate 10% CG 100-150 g/tree or spray chlorpyrifos 20% EC @ 1500-2000 ml in 600-800 l of water/acre or malathion 50% EC @ 600-800 ml in 600-800 l of water/acre or oxydemetommethyl 25% EC @ 600-800 ml in 600-800 l of water/acre or quinalphos 25% EC @ 1200-1600 ml in 200-400 l of water/acre
Scab, Marssonina blotch and Alternaria blight •        Same as above
Phytophagous-mites, •        Same as above

Fruit development (20 days after above stage)

Phytophagous-mites, •        Same as above

Pre-harvest stage (20-25 days before harvest)

Fruit scrapping caterpillar, other caterpillars, and mites Cultural control:
• Regular monitoring
Chemical control:
• Pre-harvest spray should be conducted 25 days before harvesting.
• For mites, same as above.
Scab, Marssonina blotch, Alternaria blight, Sooty blotch and fly speck, Bitter rot and brown rot • Cultural practices same as above
Chemical control:
• For sooty blotch, spray mancozeb 75% WG @ 3 g/l of water and use spray fluid of 10 l of spray fluid/tree
• For fl y speck, spray captan 75% WP @ 666.8 g/acre in water required to distribute 10-20 l/tree
• For bitter rot, spray captan 75% WP @ 666.8 g/acre in water required to distribute 10-20 l/tree or difenoconazole 25 EC @ 15 ml in 100 l of water (spray volume depending upon the tree size and spray equipment used)

Post-harvest

Scab, other diseases •        Same as above
Bitter rot, Brown rot •        Same as above
Woolly apple aphid •        Same as above

Dormant stage

Scab and other foliar diseases •        Same as above
Black rot/Canker Mechanical control:
• Proper pruning should be done to avoid mechanical injury.
Biological control:
• Use Trichoderma viride or T. harzianum with neem cake
White rot/Root rot Chemical control:
• For root rot, make 5-10 trunk injections @ 2 g/tree
San Jose scale •        Same as above
Woolly apple aphid •        Same as above
Stem borer •        Same as above
  • For root borer management install light traps @ 1 trap/acre and operate between 6 and 10 pm in the field to trap adults from May end to July.

Note: The pesticide dosages and spray fluid volumes are based on high volume spray.

* Apply Trichoderma spp. and Pseudomonas fluorescens as root stock/planting material, nursery treatment and soil application (if commercial products are used, check for label claim. However, biopesticides produced by farmers for own consumption in their fields, registration is not required).

** Pests of regional significance

Source: NIPHM, and Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine & Storage

3.01923076923
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