Education Quality Upgradation and Inclusion Programme (EQUIP)
This topic provides infomation about Education Quality Upgradation and Inclusion Programme (EQUIP).
The principles of access and inclusion have been central to India’s higher education policy. In recent times, several initiatives of the Government of India have been geared towards enhancing quality, putting a premium on excellence, and providing a major thrust to enhancing employability. Several new initiatives of the Government such as Rashtriya Uchchatar Shiksha Abhiyan (RUSA), Global Initiative of Academic Network (GIAN), Scheme for Promotion of Academic Research Collaboration (SPARC), Impactful Policy Research in Social Science (IMPRESS), Institutions of Eminence (IOE), etc. have played a major role in advancing access, equity, quality, and excellence in the Indian higher education system and institutions.
Shifts in policy priorities in the sector are linked and attributed to a constantly evolving ecosystem demanding targeted interventions at different points in time. Higher education has a primary role to play in building a knowledge-based economy, providing sustainable employment opportunities, and ensuring a better standard of living to the existing and upcoming generations. While numerous vertical programs have advanced progress in the sector, a broad-based yet targeted and action-oriented intervention is imperative to prepare the higher education system to cater to demands for quality and accessible education, and the demand for employability arising out of the current dynamism in the Industry and Economy.
EQUIP, an overarching program has been conceived by the Department of Higher Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development which sets out to deliver further on the principles of access, inclusion, quality, excellence, and enhancing employability in higher education. EQUIP aims at ushering transformations in India’s higher education system by implementing strategic interventions in the sector over five years (2019 – 2024). Ten expert groups have been constituted to design and formulate an Action Plan on Higher Education titled Education Quality Upgradation and Inclusion Program (EQUIP) encompassing ten critical areas of Indian higher education.
The EQUIP exercise has set the following objectives to be achieved in a period of 5 years:
- Double the Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) in higher education and resolve the geographically and socially skewed access to higher education institutions in India
- Upgrade the quality of education to global standards
- Position at least 50 Indian institutions among the top-1000 global universities
- Introduce governance reforms in higher education
- Accreditation of all institutions as an assurance of quality
- Promote Research & Innovation ecosystems
- Double the employability of the students passing out of higher education
- Harness education technology for expanding the reach
- Promote India as a study destination
- Achieve a quantum increase in investment in higher education
Major Challenges Identified
- Disparities in access to higher education and lack of adequate academic support to vulnerable student communities: Empirical evidence points towards the persistence of economic, social, locational, and regional disparities in access to higher education. The higher education system and institutions have to recognise and adapt to meet the demands from diverse communities of students.
- The inability of students to achieve desired learning outcomes and incapacity of teachers to deliver on credible teaching outcomes: Deficiency of prerequisites amongst students to take up programs and the subsequent failure to achieve desired outcomes is much prevalent. Limited opportunities for induction and training of teacher render them incapable of delivering on desired teaching outcomes.
- Lack of global standards of excellence in Indian higher education Institutions: This has a direct impact on India’s capacity to reap its demographic dividend and acts as an impediment for HEIs to feature in top global rankings of institutions.
- Inadequate compliance by higher education institutions and stakeholders in implementing reforms and regulations to ensure efficiency and transparency: A stark manifestation of this is the lack of autonomy of high performing institutions to independently tread the path of quality and the opaque mechanism adopted by Universities in selecting VCs/Deans/Registrars/FOs
- Lack of adequate capacity of existing accreditation bodies to ensure participation of all higher education institutions in the accreditation process: NAAC and NBA are currently reeling under the issue of inadequate capacity to bring all HEIs into the accreditation framework.
- Absence of overarching funding body to promote research and innovation: This has led to a lack of adequate funding in research and innovation, and a low quantity of quality research output.
- Absence of convergence between higher education and the skill ecosystem: Higher education contributes only 4% in offering skill training while MSDE contributes 58%. The MSDE hasn’t been involved in the higher education system either.
- Lack of quality and practical learning through MOOCs: Learning through MOOCs is currently a unilateral process whereby the learning is dependent entirely on the quality of time and effort invested by an individual learner during a MOOC. There are also issues of building the components of skills and practice through MOOCs.
- Limited initiatives were undertaken to attract students from abroad and internationally promote the excellence displayed by Indian HEIs: India ranks third in the world in terms of having students pursuing higher education from abroad. However, globally, India occupies the 26th position amongst the top destinations for international student mobility.
- Inadequate investments in higher education as a proportion to the GDP: Government’s expenditure on higher education is a mere 2.7% of the GDP as against the recommended 6% by the Kothari Commission.
Strategies and Initiatives
The following strategies and initiatives have been arrived at by the respective expert groups after several rounds of intense discussions and deliberations concentrating on the issues at hand and the possible interventions to address them. The designed strategies and initiatives were further refined by the groups based on the suggestions and recommendations received during the Higher Education Policy Retreat 2019 to make them more viable, optimal, effective, and sustainable.
Strategies for Expanding Access
Enhance access to vulnerable communities (SC/ST)
- Setting up of Samras Hostels in underserved areas: 8000 samras hostels (in BuildOwn-Operate model) would be set up to accommodate 16 lakh students from vulnerable socio-economic backgrounds with no access to higher education institutions in their vicinity to continue education. Scholarships for 16 lakh students to meet hostel expense will act as a support mechanism for students.
- Fee reimbursements for SC/ST students: 50% fee waivers for ST/SC students pursuing education through ODL and disbursal of balance in the event of successful completion of the respective academic year.
- Finishing School/Bridge Course to impart employable skills: Model degree colleges and new colleges set up in backward areas to have the provision of a bridge course (on the same pattern as finishing school) in the first year of the degree to impart mathematical and soft skills to them to enhance employability.
Expand access to cater to geographically underserved areas
- Enhance learnability and employability through vocationalisation: Upgrade 500- degree colleges in backward blocks to vocational degree college (VCD) by integrating a vocational stream to start B.Voc programs
- Broadening opportunities for access to higher education through MOOCs: Develop quality blended MOOCs to overcome the challenge of faculty deficit in institutions and to facilitate blended learning in vocational courses (with 3000 additional blended MOOCs).
Improve the Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) through Open and Distance Learning (ODL):
- Double the number of Learner Support Centres: Additional 5000 Learner Support Centres to be established to cater to 60 Lakh additional students.
- Upgrade ICT infrastructure of IGNOU: ICT infrastructure, especially EMPC of IGNOU to be upgraded and also in the 56 regional centres and other SOUs
- Offer Courses through multiple languages: IGNOU in collaboration with the State Open Universities and its regional centres located in the concerned states can facilitate the conversion of study materials into regional languages.
Enhance overall access to higher education:
- Offer incentives to students for pursuing higher education: Students need to be incentivized with opportunities to earn while studying for higher education to appeal to them. Local colleges can act as extension centres for specialized technical/vocational services, and the students could get avenues to earn in these centres
- Offer courses in a dual mode in universities: Universities may be encouraged to offer courses in dual modes and the examinations held for both Distance and Regular modes should be conducted as the same.
Towards Global Best Teaching/Learning Processes
Establish mechanisms for revision/renewal of curriculum, and the introduction of effective pedagogies and assessment practices:
- Formulate National Higher Education Qualifications Framework (NHEQF) and revise Learning Outcome-based Curriculum Framework (LOCF) in 100 courses
- Introduce new programs with effective pedagogies: Introduce flexible Bachelor’s Degree programs with multiple exit and re-entry, Bachelors Liberal Arts education and Multi & Cross-disciplinary departments in HEIs to cover 200 Universities and 10,500 colleges. Introduce Student Induction Program and Bridge Courses in all Under Graduate Programs of 2/4 credits (in 1200 institutions)
- Formulate guidelines for renewal/revision of curriculum: Create institutional mechanisms for periodic review/revision of curricula by formulating guidelines for implementation of the revised curriculum, integral to accreditation and ranking, to cover 200 Universities and 1000 colleges during 2019-2024. Prepare guidelines for a mandatory four months internship and community engagement and roll it out in all UG programs
Capacity Building and continuous professional development of faculty
- One-time financial grant to support filling up of vacancies: One-time catch up grant to every institution for a period of 5 years for filling up vacancies of full-time faculty and inducting adjunct and visiting faculty
- Faculty Induction Program: Organise Faculty Induction Programs for newly recruited Assistant Professors (in the last 5-6 years) in 400 identified institutions under UGC & MHRD.
- Develop a strategy for continuous capacity development of faculty: Organise refresher training programs for continuous professional development of faculty and leadership development programs on the lines of Leadership for Academicians Program (LEAP). Develop professional standards for faculty in HEIs covering 100 disciplines @ Rs.10 lakh per discipline and revise existing career path with tenure track leading up to leadership roles. Creating a Pool of 1000 Pedagogic Experts with three weeks of foreign training @ 20 lakh per faculty.
- Infuse professionalism and enable faculty to develop and utilize multiple pedagogical and assessment approaches: Establish 100 new Centres of Excellence/Teaching-Learning Centres under National Mission on Teachers & Teaching and a National Academy.
- Student Satisfaction Survey: Undertaking periodical student satisfaction survey by NAAC Accredited 2.0 and above Institutions
- Introduce a National Tutor's Program
Upgrade academic infrastructure and cultivate technology-enabled learning ecosystems
- Assess the adequacy of infrastructure and academic facilities: Obtain and collate information from State Governments regarding several bottoms of the pyramid Universities (150) & unaccredited colleges (5000) in each State/UT to assess the adequacy of infrastructure and academic facilities available in HEIs.
- Provide Support with a One-time Catch-up Grants to facilitate infrastructural upgradation: Fund 100 universities in States with Low GER (less than the national average) with a one-time grant of Rs. 50 Crores per University and Rs 10 Crore per college.13
- Mentorship of neighbouring HEIs: Identify Mentor institutions and implement mentoring activities
Periodic Monitoring and Evaluation:
Set up a task force to monitor implementation of initiatives over the period of five years, conduct yearly Joint Review Missions, organise yearly review meetings involving all statelevel stakeholders, develop a portal for dynamic review, etc.
- Institutions/Universities with top 1000 Global Rankings: (50) HEIs will be assisted to reach top 1000 of world rankings
- Set global standards to ensure quality: This applies to infrastructure, academics, research, amenities, industry connect, and innovation & entrepreneurship.
- Ensure International Quality Outcomes: This is to be accomplished by initiating global Collaborations, Programs and Projects, making an Off-shore Footprint, fostering Innovation and Industry
- Amend regulations for greater autonomy: Enable institutions through Modification of Rules and Regulations for more autonomy and flexibility
- Build a Circular Ecosystem for Promotion of Excellence: This is to be achieved through new Instruments and incentives
- Management through the definition of metrics, indices, payback along with national and global mentoring /facilitation schemes for achieving goals
- Expand the catchment area of receiving funds: Enhance funding and incentives to enable achievement of targets and widen the catchment area of funding beyond the government sources.
- Enhance the national reputation of institutions: This is to be achieved about stakeholders, by enhancing visibility with Students, and by enabling Global Collaborations
- Delineate a Target Group: Special autonomy would be offered to a catchment of 40-50 institutions to drive institutional excellence of global standards.
- Top 500 Global Ranking Institutions: HEIs which are in top 500 of any of the three world rankings (QS, THE, Shanghai) are proposed to be a part of this catchment14.
- Institutions in NIRF, NAAC and University with Potential for Excellence: Institutions that figure in any two of the lists of top 40 of overall NIRF Rankings, has a NAAC accreditation score of 3.51 and above and appear in the UPE list of UGC shall be considered part of this catchment.
Improve sectoral governance by the Government and the Regulatory Bodies
- Model State Public University Act: A model State Public University Act may be developed, which may not be made mandatory but serve as a model for the State Governments to emulate. It may contain the greater participation of State Councils of Higher Education in managing State Universities, define roles and the constitution of various bodies along with the qualification and process of selection of Vice Chancellors, faculty and administrators, etc. States will adopt the act if its implementation is linked to funds.
- Affiliation norms: The number of affiliated colleges with the University shall be a maximum of 100, and the existing universities with a higher number of affiliated colleges shall be divided into several universities to ensure that the number of colleges with each university does not exceed 100. The other option is to have a separate vertical in the University, headed by the Pro Vice-Chancellor to deal with the University and affiliated colleges.
- Revisiting the affiliation system: The affiliation system may be revisited whereby it shall be ensured that within two years of granting affiliation by a University, the college must be included under Section 2 (f) of the UGC Act. The affiliation by the University after seven years shall continue only if an accreditation agency notified by UGC accredits the college15.
- Establishment of new Universities: New universities are to be established only based on felt needs.
- Increasing the pool of autonomous colleges: The College shall be encouraged to become autonomous colleges, and the UGC Act may be amended to give degreeawarding powers to good autonomous colleges.
- Mentoring of Colleges: Autonomous Colleges to mentor potential colleges to move towards autonomy. Mentoring by NAAC high rating universities and NAAC high rating colleges or universities and colleges which are not yet accredited by NAAC may be undertaken at the earliest to ensure quality.
- Greater Participation of SHECs in managing HEIs: The role of State Councils of Higher Education shall be enhanced, and they should act as a buffer institution between the Central Government - State Government - State Universities – Colleges in the State16.
Improve Internal Governance in institutions
- Developing an ERP for greater transparency: A generic ERP may be developed centrally for State Public Universities for smooth flow of information amongst the university administration, student staff, and public at large leading to enhanced quality of internal functioning.
- Establishment of Human Resource Management Cell: Every university to begin with and every college at a later stage shall establish a Human Resource Management Cell for recruitment retention and development of academic as well as non-academic staff, a process which is common in all foreign universities
- Standard Operating Procedure for State Universities: Standard Operating Procedures shall be notified for transparent functioning of universities.17
- Transparent Selection of Administrators: The appointment of ViceChancellors/Deans/Registrars/FOs shall be done in a merit-driven and transparent manner.
- Continuous capacity development of HE administrators: Continuous Leadership Development Programs may be arranged for Vice-Chancellors, along with for Registrars, FOs and Controller of Examination. Non-academic staff to be trained to improve professional management of higher education.
- Formulation of Grievance Redressal System: The UGC has formulated regulation for Grievance Redressal of students. On the same pattern, the regulations for Redressal of Grievance for faculty and non-teaching staff may also be formulated.
Assessment, Accreditation and Ranking Systems
- Broaden the accreditation framework: Widen the accreditation network and acknowledge the diversity of standards during the assessment. To ensure 80% of HEIs are brought into the net of quality assurance by 2024
- Categorize institution into different levels of quality: Identify and certify institutions at Different Levels of Quality and bring them into the fold of the accreditation framework
Establish a Mentoring System for Non-accredited HEIs
- Institutions at the top levels are expected to self-mentor and continuously improve their standards. Those at lower levels would require support to lift themselves. A Model for moving up the value chain is to be designed. HEIs identified at levels AC1, and AC2 should be initiated into Mentoring Programs designed for them.
- Set up a National Mission on Mentoring in partnership with all accreditation agencies, top institutions in A1 and A2 categories, and a network of eminent retired Professors, Scientists, and Industry experts. It should closely coordinate with the National and Regional Benchmarking Agencies (NBA and RBA)
- Top institutions should be encouraged and empowered (with funding) to create internal mentoring divisions to enable motivated faculty members to participate.
Benchmarking based on qualifiers
- Benchmarking to identify institutions/programs based on basic pointers (also called qualifiers). Pointers like those used in NIRF: FSR, Student Enrolment Ratio, the Success rate of students in exams, Quality of faculty, etc.
- Every non-accredited institution must submit its data for such benchmarking to an identified agency periodically and discern its level.
Expand capacities of existing accreditation bodies
- Expand the capacity of NAAC and NBA by setting up multiple agencies of accreditation
- Create national agencies in the public domain for accreditation and benchmarking, based on several disciplines: Law, Medical and allied fields, regions, etc.
- NAAC, NBA, and newly created agencies should operate at the highest levels (A1 and A2) and maintain their quality standards and an international image
- Benchmarking at the levels AC1 and AC2 should be handled by Regional Agencies to be set up for this purpose under a national coordinating agency for benchmarking
- National agencies to issue lists for levels A1 and A2 after successful accreditation and Regional Benchmarking Agencies to issue such lists for levels AC1 and AC2
Generate Market usefulness of accreditation: This can act as an incentive for institutions to opt for quality and accreditation.
Accreditation criteria should be outcome-oriented: The criteria should focus on outcomes at all levels, especially student learning outcomes for every program of an institution
Make participation in NIRF rankings mandatory and set up NIRF as an independent organization:
- All publicly funded institutions should be mandated to participate in NIRF Rankings
- Expand the scope of NIRF to include rankings in popular branches of study and enable a larger number of institutions to become visible in the ranking lists 28
- Set up NIRF as an independent organization to widen the scope of its activities
Promotion of Research and Innovation
Set up a research funding body at the national level: The National Research Foundation
- The National Research Foundation (NRF): NRF will be a Commission by an Act of Parliament and will aim at achieving excellence in knowledge creation, people, and R&I infrastructure.
- Structure of NRF: NRF Operations will follow a Hub and Spoke model with the Central Office of NRF as the Hub and a network of Centre of Excellence (CoE), located in institutions of high repute, will be the Spokes
- Functions of NRF:
- NRF will fund research projects through grants.
- It will establish high-intensity thematic research labs in areas of science such as oceanography, nanotechnology, Information & Communication technology, with an additional focus on areas from Social Sciences.
- It will establish and support research centres to be set up in the existing higher education institutions
- Support and fund Post-Doctoral students
- Provide necessary research facilities to facilitate the creation of knowledge, innovation, and development in all fields of science and technology, and humanities
Build a robust ecosystem of research networks by reaching out to local higher education institutions: The CoEs will aggressively engage with local HEIs to establish a network of Sub-spokes called the Institution’s Innovation and Research Councils (IIRC) which will engage in outcome-based innovation activities and bring out quality research outputs
Employability and Entrepreneurship
Establish Regulatory reforms for Vocational Education:
- Introduction of Vocational Education: A formal vocational education structure should be incorporated into the college system with a credit structure that applies to both vocational and non-vocational education
- Setting up of screening tests for categorizing students: An intensive precounselling session and screening test needs to be introduced to categorize students into the general and vocational stream. This needs to be done immediately after schooling
- Re-designing of curriculum: The curriculum for vocational education will need to be revamped by UGC to incorporate skill courses with credits, and the curriculum has to be developed keeping in mind the changing needs of the industry.
- Establishing a tripartite structure: A tripartite structure needs to be established between the industry, government, and institutions to boost skill development in top institutions
- Setting up of new regulations and norms: Separate guidelines need to be formulated for the appointment of teachers in skill universities and colleges. Regulation also needs to be put in place that will posit the industry to employ and recognize vocationally certified workforce 29
Strategies for immediate implementation
- Implementation of training and counselling sessions: Counselling and training sessions are required for heads of institutions and faculty members to reorient their thinking and approach towards a vocation inclusive approach to education
- Creating Internship Opportunities: Internships should be made compulsory during college education, and it has to be promoted most conveniently. A national internship platform for students and possible recruiters should also be created.
- Introduction of new courses: New courses relevant to industry and skill development must be introduced in the curriculum. Machine learning/ data science courses should be made compulsory across the university system.
- Setting up incubation centres in institutions: The Government may implement an exercise for doubling of High-end incubation centres in top Institutions and the creation of micro- incubation labs in colleges/universities immediately
- Setting up of centres of excellence: An exclusive, professionally run Centre for Employment & Entrepreneurship is necessary for every higher education institution for student counselling arrangement, internship sourcing, providing market-based inputs on employment, entrepreneurship/start-up ideas & forward linkage
- Imparting vocational courses via MOOCs: Vocational courses should be made available via MOOCs to make these courses more accessible. Fifteen lakhs have been allocated for 200 courses which will be made available via MOOCs.
Using Technology For Better Reach
Promoting online education to get the scale for quality education
- Improving the Quality of SWAYAM courses - stringent quality control of MOOCs courses, more focus on formal courses, promoting multi-disciplinary programs, specialized courses in niche areas, selection of courses and course coordinators would be given importance.
- Strengthening and Expansion of Local Chapters - of at least 10,000 Institutions in the next five years. Also, Digital Education Support Centres (DESCs) would be set up in 1000 Institutions in the underserved regions.
- Capacity Building of Course Coordinators of SWAYAM courses - to improve the quality of courses being offered.
- Internships and hands-on lab courses at premier institutes
- Hive off SWAYAM into a separate autonomous Board driven organization under MHRD, to facilitate the more focused effort
- SWAYAM should graduate to a Virtual University - to provide quality education with flexibility and ensuring employability
Training teachers in the use of technology and associated pedagogy
Promoting education technologies for improving the quality of education
- Research in Edu Tech should be promoted significantly by setting up Centres of Excellence (CoE) in premier Institutions along with Incubation support facility for startups.
- Interested faculty should be offered Fellowships to pursue further studies in Edu Tech area
- More Ph.Ds should be offered and supported by MHRD in Edu Tech area
- Policy to support Start-ups to promote Innovative work in the Edu Tech area 30
Operation Digital Board: It aims to introduce digital pedagogy in the classrooms through a blended mode of learning. Every classroom would be supported with a digital board, power, internet facilities.
Promoting various digital initiatives like National Digital Library, Swayam Prabha, eYantra, virtual labs, FOSSE / Spoken Tutorials
Promoting digital initiatives in the unreached areas
- Special efforts to promote digital education in the so far unreached areas should be taken up as a targeted Outreach Initiative through DESCs.
- The emphasis of this initiative should be more on assured adoption of the digital initiatives, by close handholding and mentoring, rather than just dissemination of information.
Public-Private Partnership for implementing digital initiatives
Other promotional interventions such as giving weightage for digital initiatives in the Rankings like NAAC/ NIRF, Internships to faculty and students in premier Institutions.
Internationalization of Higher Education
Enhance inward mobility of international students
- Study in India Program: Granting autonomy to HEIs participating in the ‘Study in India (SII)’ program on matters relating to internationalization of higher education (October 2019 to March 2020)
- Scholarships & Accommodation Facilities: Scholarships for international students (2020 - 21 to 2023 - 2024). Internationalisation of entrance examinations/tests for the selection/recruitment of international students (October 2019 to March 2020). Improving hostel facilities in HEIs participating in SII program (2020-21 to 2023-24)
- Promoting Institutional Mobility: Indian students who want to pursue a PhD at top200 ranked universities in the world, will be supported with scholarships (for up to 5 years), with the condition that the scholar will have to return to India after completion of their PhD for at least five years and then apply for the proposed ‘PM Young Academician’ scheme to be launched in 2020-21.
- Promoting Program Mobility (2020-21 to 2023-24): To promote twinning and Joint Degrees / Joint PhDs, MHRD will incentivise selected Indian HEIs with funding.
Promote Faculty Mobility
- Establishing partnerships for global mobility of faculty at Indian HEIs (October 2019 to 2023-24): International strategic partnerships for global mobility of faculty from Indian HEIs will be promoted.
- Expanding academic collaboration with HEIs abroad (October 2019 to 2023- 24) Tie-ups with reputed foreign higher education institutions will be expanded for knowledge sharing and research collaboration
- Distinguished Academician Return’ (2020-21 to 2023-24) This scheme aims at facilitating deeper engagement of distinguished global faculty/scientists with Indian institutions – by offering them ‘dual’ appointments at Indian institutions (along with their foreign appointment), to spend at least three months every year at the Indian institution.
- ‘Research Sabbaticals’ (2020-21 to 2023-24) This scheme aims at facilitating temporary migration of global academics on research sabbaticals of up to 3 years, where they spend at least three months every year at the Indian host institution for at least three years (while remaining employed at foreign university for the period). 31
- ’Young Academician Return’ (2020-21 to 2023-24): The objective of this scheme is to facilitate permanent return/ migration to India of young Indian scientists under the age of 40.
- Promoting Institutional Mobility: Specific policy initiatives are taken up for increasing the number of the offshore campus of Indian HEIs abroad and allowing foreign higher education institutions to set up their branch campus within India.
- Program Mobility: Program mobility and cross border delivery of higher education programs are substantially enhanced by extending the reach of Open and Distance Learning (ODL) programs and online courses offered by Indian HEIs and allowing credit transfer to promote the internationalisation of higher education.
Financing Higher Education
- Initiating HEFA reforms: Tenure of HEFA loan to be raised to 15 years. Among the HEFA reforms, the cost of maintenance of assets created must also be considered while reviewing the total cost to Government.
- Transformation of Governance Structure: Governance structure of the university system must be transformed drastically into a professional and functionally autonomous one, with an independent regulatory structure. Standalone research institutions must be affiliated to a University to improve their credibility, outreach, and funding.
- New modes of generating funds: Opening up of sophisticated research equipment by HEIs to industry and other external users to both improve their utilization and also earn revenues through them. Maintenance costs of assets created continuously should also be aligned with the fee structure dynamically. Fee revision to be based on the cost of education and protect the institution from fee subsidy. Typical funding model has to be worked out for State Universities with funding based on performance metrics