|Common cultural practices:
•Destroy the alternate host plants
•Sow the ecological engineering plants
•Sow sorghum/maize/pearl millet in 4 rows all around the main crop as guard/barrier crop
•Plough the field before planting to destroy existing weeds in the field.
•Plough deep after harvest to bury the pupae.
•Deep summer ploughing of field reduces the incidence of mealy bug and soil-borne pathogens.
•Seed nuts must be collected during peak period of harvest and sun dried for two to three days.
•Medium size nuts (7-9 gm) may be selected to get vigorously growing seedlings.
•Seed nuts should be soaked over night in water before sowing.
•Sow the soaked nuts in the polythene bags filled with potting mixture.
•Seedlings will be ready for grafting 40-50 days after germination.
•Irrigate the orchards as and when required
•Provide proper shade, irrigation & drainage.
•Rogue out diseased seedling.
•Employ locally made rat traps.
•Use resistant/tolerant varieties
•Destroy the alternate host plants
|Nutrients||•Nitrogen: Application of recommended nitrogenous fertilizers (69kg of Urea/acre) or foliar application of Urea 20g-40g/lit water at fortnightly intervals.
•Phosphorus: Soil application of single super phosphate or foliar application of ortho phosphoric acid 5ml/lit thrice.
•Potassium: Foliar spray of SOP 20gl/l at fortnightly intervals
•Calcium: Application of gypsum at 50 kg/ha.
•Magnesium: Soil application of MgSO4 5-10 kg/ha a foliar spray of MgSO4 20ml/lit at fortnightly intervals.
•Sulphur: Soil application of sulphur fertilizer
•Boron: Soil application of 5-10 kg Borax / ha or foliar spray of 2.5ml/li Borax at 10 days interval or solubor at 300 g/ 100l of water
•Copper: Foliar spray of Copper sulphate by mixing with lime water @ 2 g/l of water at fortnightly intervals
•Iron: Soil application of FeSO4 fertilizer @ 4 kg/acre
•Manganese: Foliar application of MnSO4 2 g l/l at fortnightly intervals
•Zinc: Soil application of ZnSO4 10 kg/ha or foliar spray of ZnSO4 5g/l of water .
|Weeds||• Hand weeding and timely mulching.|
|Common mechanical practices:
•Remove new sprouts emerging from root stock at frequent intervals.
•Shift the grafts frequently from one place to another to prevent them from striking roots into the ground.
|Pests, Soil-borne pathogens||Cultural Control:
•Well decomposed farm yard manure coupled with Trichoderma viride/harzianum should be used.
•Nursery beds should be raised..
•Nursery beds should be fumigated with 4% formalin
•Destruction of termetorium along with queen.
•Drenching of the planting pits with Chlorpyrifos 20 EC @ 5 ml/l of water
|Common cultural practices:
•Collect and destroy crop debris
•Collect and destroy disease infected and insect damaged plant parts
•Enhance parasitic activity by avoiding chemical spray, when 1-2 larval parasitoids are observed
•Remove weed plants
•Provide timely irrigation, organic manure, fertilizer as per the recommended dose, drainage, weeding, mulching, interculture etc.
Common mechanical practices:
•Handpick the older larvae during early stages
•Collect and destroy plant parts infested with insect pest and diseases
•Handpick the gregarious caterpillars and the cocoons which are found on stem and destroy them in kerosene mixed water.
•Use yellow sticky traps @ 4-5 trap/acre
•Use light trap @ 1/acre and operate between 6 pm and 10 pm
•Install pheromone traps @ 4-5/acre for monitoring adult moths activity (replace the lures with fresh lures after every 2-3 weeks)
•Erecting of bird perches @ 20/acre for encouraging predatory birds such as King crow, common mynah etc.
•Set up bonfire during evening hours at 7-8 pm
Common biological practices:
•Conserve natural enemies through ecological engineering
•Augmentative release of natural enemies
|Mango leaf hopper||
•Follow common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
•Pruning of dense orchards in the month of December, orchard sanitation andfield sanitation, rogueing.
|Bark-eating caterpillar||•Follow common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
•Keep orchard clean and healthy.
•Cut dried branches
|Stem borer||•Follow common cultural, mechanical and biological practices|
|Leaf webber||•Follow common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
•Pruning of overcrowded and overlapping branches.
•Mechanical removal of infested webs by leaf web removing device and burning them.
|Mango mealybug||•Follow common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
•Flooding of orchard with water in the month of October kill the eggs.
•Ploughing of orchard in November.
•Raking of soil around tree trunk to expose the eggs to natural enemies and sun, removal of weeds
•Fastening of alkathene sheet (400 gauge)/grease band of 25 cm wide afterwards mud plastering of trunk at 30 cm above the ground in the middle of December.
•In July –August destruction of infested fallen leaves with scales
•Raking of soil around tree trunk to expose the eggs to natural enemies and sun, removal of weeds and releasing 10-15 grubs
•Releasing 10-15 grubs of cocinellid predator, C. montrozieri per tree.
•Dimethoate 30% EC@ 990-1320 ml in 600-800 l of water/acre
•Monocrotophos 36% SL@ 600-800 ml in 200-800 l of water/acre
( Do not use at fruiting stage)
|Powdery mildew||•Follow common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
•Spraying at full bloom needs to be avoided.
•Prune diseased leaves and malformed panicles harbouring the pathogen to reduce primary inoculum load.
•Azoxystrobin 23% SC @ 100 ml (0.1%)/100 l of water depending on the size of the tree canopy.
•Carbendazim 46.27% SC@ 0.1%or100 ml/100 l Water, depending on the size of tree.
•Dinocap 48% EC @ 5 g in 10 l of water/tree
•Hexaconazole 5% EC@ 0.1%(100ml/100 l) depending on the size of tree
•Hexaconazole 5 % SC @ 0.2%or 200ml/100 lt. water Asrequired depending onsizeof treeand plant protection equipment used.
•Penconazole 10% EC@50ml/100Lt. water50ml/100Lt. water, 10 l/tree
•Sulphur 55.16 % SC@ 0.30%or300 ml/100Lt. water As required
•Sulphur 80% WP@ 1.252 kg in 300-400 l of water/acre
•Sulphur80%WG@ 0.7-1.0 kg in 300-400 l of water/acre
•Triadimefon 25% WP@ 0.040- 0.100% ,10-15 l depending on the size of tree
|Anthracnose||•Follow common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
•Diseased leaves, twigs, gall midge infected leaves and fruits, should be collected and burnt.
•Covering the fruits on tree, 15 days prior to harvest with news or brown paper bags.
•Azoxystrobin 23% SC@ 100 ml (0.1%)/100 l of water depending on the size of the tree canopy.
•Copper oxy-chloride 50% WG@0.24%or 240g/100lwater asrequired depending uponPP equipment
|Dieback||•Follow common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
•Scion wood selected for propagation should be free from infection
•Every care should be taken to prevent introduction of disease in newly planted orchards.
•Any infected portion should immediately be pruned, followed by spraying/ pasting of copper oxy-chloride or pasting with cow dung at the cut ends.
•Pruning should be done in such a way that some healthy portion is also removed, to ensure complete eradication of pathogen (3 “below the infection site).
|Bacterial canker||•Follow common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
•Regular inspection of orchards, sanitation and seedling certification are recommended as preventive measures.
•Mango stones for raising seedlings (root stock) should always be taken from healthy fruits.
•Use of wind-breaks helps in reducing brushing/ wounding and thus reduces chance of infection.
|Red rust||•Follow common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
•If vigour of plant is maintained by balanced nutrients, the disease is less.
•As the disease starts on the onset of rain, it is desired to spray fungicide copper oxy-chloride twice during the month of July/ August at 15 days intervals.
|Phoma blight||•Follow common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
•The affected branches should be collected and burnt.
•Balanced nutrition provides resistance to phoma blight
|Mango Leaf Hopper, Leaf webber, Mango mealy bug||•Same as vegetative stage.|
|Scale insects,||Cultural control:
•Prune heavily infested plant parts to open the tree canopy and destroy‟ them immediately.
•Prune infested parts (branches and twigs) preferably during summer.
•These should be placed in a pit constructed on one corner of the orchard. Allow branches and twigs to dry until the parasites escape.
•Burn the remaining debris.
•Removal of attendant ants may permit natural enemies to control the insect.
•Malathion 50% EC @ 900-1200 ml in 600-800 l of water/acre
|Inflorescence midge,||Cultural control:
•Deep ploughing of orchard in October- November to expose pupae and diapausing larvaeto sun‟s heat which kills them.
|Stone weevil||Cultural control:
•Collection and destruction of infested and fallen fruits at weekly interval till fruit harvest.
•Ploughing of orchard after harvest to expose hibernating adults, reduce, infestation levels.
•Destroy all left over seeds in the orchard and also in the processing industries.
•The natural enemies recorded on S. gravis include a mite Rhizoglyphussp., ants (Camponatus sp., Monomorium sp. and Oecophyllasmaragdina) andfungus Aspergillussp., Beauveriabassiana was found to be pathogenic on mango weevil.
|Shoot gall psylla,||Cultural control:
•Galls with nymphs should be collected and destroyed.
•Conserve the predators like blackladybird beetle, purplish pirate bug, brown lacewing, tiny parasitic wasp.
|Shoot borer,||Cultural control:
•Attacked shoots should be clipped off and destroyed.
•Clean hole and pour kerosene/petrol/crude oil or formalin into the stem borer hole and subsequently close entrance of the tunnel by plugging with cotton wool and paste the mud.
•Use light trap@1/acre
•Monocrotophos36%SL@ 600-800 ml in 200-800 l of water/acre
|Powdery mildews, Anthracnose, Dieback, Bacterial canker, Red rust, Phoma blight||•Same as vegetative stage|
|Sooty mould||•Pruning of affected branches and their prompt destruction prevents the spread of the disease|
|Stem end rot||Cultural control:
•Avoid harvesting of immature fruits Cool fruits immediately after harvest and store in well ventilated containers.
•The diseased bark / portion should be removed or cleaned and pasted withcow dung paste.
|Mango malformation||Cultural control:
•The floral malformed panicles/ vegetative malformed shoots should be pruned and burnt which reduces the incidence of malformation.
•Application of NAA (200 ppm) in the first week of October (Before bud differentiation stages) followed by de-blossoming in the late December or January reduces the incidence of malformation.
|Mango Shoot Caterpillar||Cultural control:
•Keep orchard clean and healthy.
•Removal and destruction of egg masses.
|Fruit fly||Cultural control:
•Prior to harvest (30-40 days) collect and disposed off infested and fallen fruits to prevent further multiplication and carry-over of population.
•Ploughing of orchard during November-December to expose pupae to sun‟s heat which kills them.
•If infestation is heavy, bait splash on the trunk only, once or twice at weekly interval is recommended. To prepare bait splash, mix 100 gm of jaggery in one litre of water and add 1 ml of deltamethrin by using an old broom.
•Managing fruit flies also reduces anthracnose disease and prevents late fruit fall.
•Male annihilation technique: Set up fly trap using methyl eugenol. Prepare methyl eugenol 1 ml/l of water + 1 ml of malathion solution.
•Take 10 ml of this mixture per trap and keep them at 25 different places in one ha between 6 and 8 am.
•Collect and destroy the adult flies.
•Hot water treatment of fruit at 48 ± 1 ºC for 4-5min.
•Use methyl eugenal pheromone trap@4/acre
|Sooty mould, anthracnose, bacterial canker||•Same as vegetative stage|
|Anthracnose (C. gloeosporioides), Stem end rot (L. theobromae), Aspergillus rot||Physical control:
•Hot water treatment at 520C for 4-5min.
•Fruits should be sprayed with the mixture of bio-inoculants.
•Postharvest dip treatment of fruits with botanical fungicides could also control the diseases during storage.