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Pomegranate Crop Stage Wise IPM

Management

Activity

Pre planting*

Common cultural practices:

  • Timely planting should be done.
  • Field sanitation, rogueing
  • Destroy the alternate host plants
  • Apply manures and fertilizers as per soil test recommendations
  • Sow the ecological engineering plants
  • Sow the intercrops as per the season.
  • Sow/plant sorghum/maize/pearl millet in 4 rows all around the crops as a guard/barrier crop.

Nutrients

  • Pits are dug 60-75 cm3 before the onset of monsoon. The pits are filled with 20-25 kg of FYM or Compost, 1 kg of super phosphate. The plants are planted usually in square or hexagonal system.
  • The distance of planting in case of many improved varieties is 5.0 X 4.0 m.
  • For higher yields during the first 4-5 years after planting, a distance of 5 X 2 m may be adopted and alternate plants may be removed afterwards maintaining a planting distance of 5 X 4 m.

Weeds

  • Weeds should be removed from the field to avoid further spread of weed seeds

Soil-borne pathogens, and resting stages of insects

Cultural control:

  • Deep summer ploughing of fields to exposes dormant stages (pupa and larva) and subsequently reduces their initial population build up
  • Soil solarization: Cover the beds with polythene sheet of 45 gauge (0.45 mm) thickness for three weeks before planting for soil solarization which will help in reducing the soil-borne pests including weeds.
  • Ploughing in inter- space.

Bacterial leaf spot

Cultural control:

  • Proper plant & row spacing
  • Selection of disease free seedlings for fresh planting
  • Use of plenty of organics + micronutrients + recommended NPK

Planting*

Common cultural practices:

  • Use resistant/tolerant planting material/seedlings
  • Use healthy, certified and weed free planting material.
  • Follow proper plant spacing

Nutrients

  • One year old plants should be applied about 10 kg of FYM and  150 to 200 grams of Ammonium sulphate. This amount is increased every year, so that a five year old plant gets 50 kg FYM and 1 Kg of Ammonium sulphate.The adult bearing trees are applied with 675g of Nitrogen, 250g each of Phosphorous and Potash.

Weeds

  • Remove weeds before planting.

Soil-borne pathogens, and resting stages of insects

Cultural control:

  • Clean cultivation: For healthy growth keep basin clean.
  • Soil health: Avoid water logging, keep soil raked and aerated, to reduce invasion of shot hole borer.
  • Detection of pest: The infestation should be detected periodically by looking out for drying branches.
  • Moderate to heavy pruning to remove disease affected, broken, crisscross branches, water sprouts, suckers and opening canopy to improve light penetration.

Mechanical control:

  • Uproot infested trees: Infested young plants should be uprooted and burnt.

* Apply Trichoderma viride/ harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens as seed/seedling/planting material, nursery treatment and soil application (if commercial products are used, check for label claim. However, biopesticides produced by farmers for own consumption in their fields, registration is not required).

Vegetative stages

Common cultural practices:

  • Collect and destroy crop debris
  • Provide irrigation at the critical stages of the crop
  • Avoid water logging
  • Avoid water stress during flowering stage
  • Follow judicious use of fertilizers
  • Enhance parasitic activity by avoiding chemical pesticide spray, when 1-2 larval parasitoids are observed in the crops field.

Common mechanical practices:

  • Collect and destroy disease infected and insect infested plant parts
  • Collect and destroy eggs and early stage larvae
  • Handpick the older larvae during early stages
  • Use yellow sticky traps @ 4-5 trap/acre
  • Use light trap @ 1/acre and operate between 6 pm and 10 pm
  • Install pheromone traps @ 4-5/acre for monitoring adult moths activity (replace the lures with fresh lures after every 2-3 weeks)
  • Erecting of bird perches @ 20/acre for encouraging predatory birds such as King crow, common mynah etc.
  • Set up bonfire during evening hours at 7-8 pm.

Common biological practices:

  • Conserve natural enemies through ecological engineering 25
  • Augmentative release of natural enemies

Nutrients

  • Irrigation interval may vary from 1-3 days depending upon weather condition, age of plant, crop stage, soil type etc.
  • Provide less irrigation during new leaf emergence and flower development stages as excess water during these Stages may lead poor flowering.
  • Apply NPK@ 170-40-40g/tree and FYM@ 10kg/tree if the crop age is 3years, NPK@ 170-40-85g/tree and FYM @ 15kg/tree crop age is 4 years, NPK @ 210-85-85 g/tree and FYM @ 20kg/tree crop age is above 5years.
  • Along with recommended dosage of NPK and FYM apply Neem cake 0.5kg + vermicompost 1.5kg + calcium ammonium nitrate 50g/tree in circular trench (15-20 cm wide of 8-10cm depth) at 45-60cm apart from the stem, cover the trenches properly with soil and start irrigation.

Weeds

  • Remove weeds before flowering.

Shot hole borer

Cultural control:

  • Avoid water logging and rake the soil

Mechanical control:

  • Infested young plants should be uprooted and burnt.

Stem boring beetle

Cultural control:

  • Detect early infestation periodically looking out for drying branches.

Pomegranate butterfly

Cultural control:

  • Clean cultivation and maintenance of health and vigour of the tree should be followed.
  • The fruits if screened with polythene or paper bags may escape infestation.
  • Removal and destruction of all the affected fruits.

Mechanical control:

  • Remove weeds of compositae family
  • Detect early infestation by periodically looking for drying branches.

Biological control:

  • Release of Trichogramma chilonis @ 1.0 lakhs/ acre four times at 10 days interval

Flowering and Fruiting

Common cultural practices

  • Same as in vegetative stage

Nutrients

  • Collect & burn fallen leaves /debris from the orchard
  • Harrowing in interspaces.
  • Apply full dose of well rotten FYM and P, 1/3rd N&K fertilizers @ 330-85-85g/tree and FYM @ 20kg/tree for 3year old plant, NPK@ 330-85-165 g/tree and FYM @ 25 kg/tree crop age is 4yrars, NPK @415-165-165 g/tree and FYM @ 30 kg/tree crop age is above 5 years along with micronutrients (ZnSO4, FeSO4, MnSO4 each 25g and10g Borax (Boron) /tree)+ Neem Cake 1- 1.5 kg /tree + Vermicompost 2 kg/tree in shallow trench or ring (15-20 cm wide of 8-10cm depth) at 45-60cm apart from the stem, cover the trenches properly with soil and give light irrigation immediately after fertilizer application.
  • There should not be moisture stress at fruit setting, fruit maturation and fruit ripening.

Weeds

  • Remove weeds and suckers
  • Remove suckers & take up timely weeding

Butterfly/fruit sucking moth

Cultural control:

  • Remove eggs from calyx.
  • Collect and destroy damaged fruits
  • Follow clean cultivation as weed plants serve as alternate hosts

Mechanical control:

  • Prune the affected parts of the plant and destroy.
  • Detect early infestation by periodically looking for drying branches.
  • Use light trap @ 1/ acre to monitor the activity of adults

Biological control:

  • Release Trichogramma chilonis at one lacs/acre

Shot hole borer

Mechanical control:

  • Infested trees should be uprooted and brunt, especially the root zone.
  • Prune the affected fruits and buds of the plant and destroy.
  • Detect early infestation by periodically looking for drying branches

Thrips

Cultural control:

  • Keep basin clean.
  • Maintain adequate aeration by proper training and pruning

Mechanical control:

  • Prune the affected parts of the plant and destroy.
  • Detect early infestation by periodical monitoring for drying branches.
  • Use of blue sticky traps @ 4-10 traps/acre

Biological control:

  • Conservation and release of defenders like Syrphids and Coccinellids should be done to suppress sucking pests.

Mealy bugs

Cultural control:

  • Collect and destroy the infested plant parts
  • Remove alternate hosts

Biological control:

  • Conservation and release of defenders like Syrphids and coccinellids should be conserved to suppress sucking pests.
  • Release Cryptolaemus montrouzieri near the site of mealy bug @ 10/tree.

Aphid

Cultural control:

  • Collect and destroy the damaged plant parts
  • Maintain adequate aeration by proper training and pruning
  • Use yellow sticky traps @ 4-10 traps /acre

Biological control:

  • Release first instar larva of Chrysoperla zastrowi sillemi @ 15 / flowering branch (four times) at 10 days interval from flower initiation during April.

Whitefly

Cultural control:

  • Field sanitation
  • Removal of host plants
  • Maintain adequate aeration by proper training and pruning
  • Install yellow sticky traps @ 4-10 traps /acre

Biological control:

  • Release of predators viz., Coccinellid predator, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri and lacewing,
  • Release of parasitoids viz., Encarsia haitierrsis and E. guadeloupae

Bacterial leaf and fruit spot

Cultural control:

  • Clean cultivation and strict sanitation in orchard
  • Prune and burn affected branches and fruits should be done regularly
  • Collect and burn fallen infected leaves and fruits

Leaf and fruit spot

Cultural control:

  • The diseased fruits and twigs should be pruned and destroyed.
  • 10% garlic and onion bulb extracts is effective in controlling the disease.

Chemical control:

  • Apply Propineb 70% WP @ 0.30% or 120g in 80 l of water as required depending upon size of the tree and plant protection equipment used

Anthracnose

Cultural control:

  • Select Haste or Ambe bahar
  • Wider plant spacing, yearly pruning of trees.
  • Proper disposal of diseased leaves, twigs and fruits.

Chemical control:

  • Apply Kitazin 48% EC @ 0.20% or 80ml in 80 l of water as require depending upon crop stage and plant protection equipment used

Fruit rot & scab**

Cultural control:

  • Select Haste or Ambe bahar
  • Wider plant spacing, yearly pruning of trees.
  • Proper disposal of diseased leaves, twigs and fruits.

Post harvest

Pest & diseases

Cultural methods:

Mechanical control:

  • Remove and destroy all the affected fruits to reduce, the incidence of Anar butterfly.
  • Cover the fruit with paper bags when the fruits are sized up to 5 cm.


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